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Stains and molecular markers topic template at PathologyOutlines.com

Revised: 30 October 2019
Copyright: 2018, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Examples of well written Stains and molecular marker topics: GATA3 and INSM1.

For ease of use, we put topic headings in the same order. Please put some text under each heading, but do not include obvious or repetitive information. If you think there is nothing to add, please write "not relevant to this topic", "repetitive with __ heading" or "unknown at this time." Do not delete any topic headings.

Definition / general
A 1-2 sentence summary of the topic.

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Essential features
This topic heading should be completed after the rest of the topic is finished and should duplicate the 3-5 most important points mentioned elsewhere in the topic. In other words, it should list what every pathologist should know about the topic or what would be in a Board Review book.

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Terminology
Other names used today or historically that pathologists may be more familiar with.

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Pathophysiology
Step by step details of how the marker typically works in the body beyond what is stated in Definition / general.

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Diagrams
Those that don't automatically fit in another section. Provide a brief caption for all diagrams and a detailed figure legend if this is your own diagram.

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Clinical features
Anything clinical not included above or below. Includes clinical conditions associated with an altered biomarker.

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Interpretation
Describe which part of the cell stains (cytoplasm, nucleus, Golgi, cell membrane) and any relevant staining patterns (diffuse, dot-like).

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Uses by pathologists
How are these results typically used by practicing pathologists? For some markers, there is "no current clinical use by pathologists."

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Prognostic factors
Favorable or unfavorable prognostic factors for a condition based on the biomarker result.

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Microscopic (histologic) description
Any features describing staining patterns beyond what is stated above under Interpretation.

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Microscopic (histologic) images
Take and submit high quality representative micro images. Include relevant H&E images followed by corresponding stain images. For each image, provide a brief caption and a detailed figure legend. Submit each image individually.

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Virtual slides
See above for recommended websites. Provide a brief caption for each slide.

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Positive staining - normal
Describe tissues that are typically positive for the biomarker. Journal references are mandatory.

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Positive staining - disease
Describe diseases / tumors that are typically positive for the biomarker. Give percentages if not uniformly positive. Journal references are mandatory.

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Negative staining
Describe diseases / tumors that are typically negative for the biomarker. Give percentages if not uniformly negative. Journal references are mandatory.

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Molecular / cytogenetics description
Description of DNA / RNA findings based on testing via sequencing, PCR, FISH, CISH, ISH, cytogenetics, etc.

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Molecular / cytogenetics images
Images of FISH, CISH, ISH, electropherograms, PCR gels, karyograms, etc. with brief caption and detailed figure legend for each image.

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Additional references
General references for this topic not included above.

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Board Review Question(s)
Prepare at least 1 board review style question that highlights important content from this topic. If providing 2 questions, at least 1 of the question should utilize an image. These are not actual questions from the Pathology boards but review questions written in a similar format. The questions should test basic, essential diagnostic concepts that all pathologists should know rather than minor details. The topic needs to contain all information relevant to correct and incorrect answers. The first question must contain an image of the entity followed by a multiple choice question, such as "Which of the following is true about XXX tumor/disease?" The image can be reused from the topic. Do not use the format "Which of the following is false?" Questions should have only one answer. Do not use responses "all of the above", "none of the above", "A and C", etc. This question will be part of our Board Review page so the reader may not know the topic with which it is associated. Therefore you must make the organ clear in the question and the diagnosis clear in the answer. The second question may have an image associated with it but an image is not required. Click here for examples.

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Board Review Answer(s)
Answers to the Question(s) above, sorted alphabetically by the first letter in the answer.

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