Adrenal gland and paraganglia
Adrenal hyperfunction / hyperplasia
Adrenal hyperfunction - general
Reviewer: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 February 2013, last major update February 2005
Copyright: (c) 2002-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Causes are Cushing’s syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, adrenogenital syndrome or other congenital adrenal hyperplasia
● May be ACTH-dependent (Cushing’s disease, ectopic ACTH syndrome, ectopic CRH syndrome) or independent (hyperplasia, adenoma, carcinoma, iatrogenic)
● Symptoms: initially weight gain, hypertension; later truncal obesity, moon facies, buffalo hump (fat in posterior neck and back), atrophy of fast twitch (type 2) fibers causing muscle weakness, hyperglycemia, glucosuria, polydipsia (due to increased gluconeogenesis, reduced glucose uptake by cells), loss of collagen in proteins (fragile skin), bone resorption (osteoporosis), abdominal striae, infections, mental disturbances, hirsutism and menstrual abnormalities
● Diagnosis: elevated 24 hour urine free cortisol, loss of diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion
● Myelolipomatous change: may be a marker of cortisol hyperactivity
End of Adrenal gland and paraganglia > Adrenal hyperfunction / hyperplasia > Adrenal hyperfunction - general
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