Bladder
Congenital anomalies
Arteriovenous malformation



Topic Completed: 1 June 2011

Revised: 14 December 2018

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Cite this page: Chaux A Arteriovenous malformation. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/bladderAVM.html. Accessed March 21st, 2019.
Definition / general
  • By definition, direct communication is present between arterioles and venules
Sites
  • More common in CNS, intestine, lung, extremities
  • Very rare in urinary bladder
Etiology
  • Can be congenital or acquired (post-traumatic)
Clinical features
  • The most common symptom is hematuria (gross or micro, persistent or intermittent, may be massive)
  • Other symptoms include dysuria, difficulty in voiding and urinary retention
  • Some cases are asymptomatic
Case reports
Treatment
  • Excision is adequate therapy
Gross description
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Admixture of malformed vessels such as capillaries, arteries and venules
  • Abrupt changes in thickness of medial and elastic layers of vessels, abnormal vascular dilation
  • Often advanced small vessel disease, hemorrhage, ulceration (Hum Pathol 1986;17:94)
  • Involves submucosa but not muscularis propria
  • May be associated with pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia of bladder (Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32:92)
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Brain images:

Arteriovenous malformation

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