Bladder
Congenital anomalies
Arteriovenous malformation

Author: Alcides Chaux, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 8 March 2016, last major update June 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2016, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Cite this page: Arteriovenous malformation. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/bladderAVM.html. Accessed December 6th, 2016.
Definition / General
  • By definition, direct communication is present between arterioles and venules
Sites
  • More common in CNS, intestine, lung, extremities
  • Very rare in urinary bladder
Etiology
  • Can be congenital or acquired (post-traumatic)
Clinical Features
  • The most common symptom is hematuria (gross or micro, persistent or intermittent, may be massive)
  • Other symptoms include dysuria, difficulty in voiding and urinary retention
  • Some cases are asymptomatic
Case Reports
Treatment
  • Excision is adequate therapy
Gross Description
Micro Description
  • Admixture of malformed vessels such as capillaries, arteries and venules
  • Abrupt changes in thickness of medial and elastic layers of vessels, abnormal vascular dilation
  • Often advanced small vessel disease, hemorrhage, ulceration (Hum Pathol 1986;17:94)
  • Involves submucosa but not muscularis propria
  • May be associated with pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia of bladder (Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32:92)
Micro Images
Brain images: Brain #1; Brain #2