Chronic cystitis

Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 23 March 2016, last major update June 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2016,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Bladder chronic cystitis[title]
Definition / General
  • Chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate of lamina propria, due to recurrent or prolonged urinary tract infections
  • Includes follicular cystitis
  • More common in women, most likely because urethra is shorter
  • Typically due to repeated bouts of urinary tract infection
  • In some females, may be due to altered bladder mucosal responses to gram negative bacteria, caused by delayed initiation of antibiotic therapy after acute gram negative infections (PLoS Pathog 2010;6:ii:e1001042)
Gross Description
  • Heaping of mucosa
  • Red, friable, ulcerated mucosa
Micro Description
  • Chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate
  • Fibrous thickening of muscularis propria
  • Often reactive epithelial atypia
  • Note: florid chronic cystitis may mask urothelial carcinoma
Micro Images

With keratinizing squamous metaplasia

Cytology Description
  • Nuclei are enlarged with prominent nucleoli
  • Variable cytoplasmic vacuoles
Differential Diagnosis