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Acquired non-neoplastic anomalies


Reviewers: Alcides Chaux, M.D., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 26 March 2011, last major update March 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● Pouch created due to pelvic relaxation, which causes uterine prolapse and protrusion of bladder into vagina
● May occur in combination with rectocele and enterocele
● Usually is no pathologic specimen


● A type of pelvic organ prolapse


● Weakening of the pubocervical fascia due to child birth, aging or previous hysterectomy
● Other causes include obesity, heavy lifting, chronic constipation and chronic bronchitis

Clinical features

● Commonly seen in multiparous, post-menopausal women
● Pelvic organ prolapse, including cystocele, is a significant health issue for women, with 250K procedures annually in US
● Associated with urinary tract infections, since bladder does not empty completely
● May be accompanied by urethrocele


● Watchful waiting, pessary, various surgical procedures (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 Jul 18;CD004014)
● Estrogen therapy in post-menopausal women

Additional references


End of Bladder > Acquired non-neoplastic anomalies > Cystocele

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