Bladder & ureters
Cytology
Primary nonurothelial neoplasms


Topic Completed: 1 February 2013

Revised: 20 September 2019

Copyright: 2003-2019, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Primary nonurothelial neoplasms

Rugvedita Parakh, M.D.
Page views in 2018: 1,055
Page views in 2019 to date: 1,446
Table of Contents
Definition / general
Cite this page: Parakh R. Primary nonurothelial neoplasms. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/bladdercytologyprimaryinvasive.html. Accessed December 7th, 2019.
Definition / general

Adenocarcinoma
  • See also adenocarcinoma-general
  • Colonic or clear cell cytology
  • Finely vacuolated cytoplasm
  • Nuclei with vesicular chromatin and prominent nucleoli
  • Colonic-type adenocarcinoma: columnar morphology in a mucinous background, necrosis
  • Signet-ring cell type adenocarcinoma: round cells with a large cytoplasmic vacuole pushing the nuclei
  • Clear cell adenocarcinoma: large cells with thin or vacuolated cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei, vesicular chromatin and prominent nucleoli
  • Differential diagnosis: neophrogenic adenoma and cystitis cystica


Small cell carcinoma
  • See also small cell carcinoma
  • Cellular with either single cells or clusters of small round to oval cells with scant cytoplasm, nuclear molding, hyperchromatic nuclei and granular chromatin pattern
  • Also karyorrhectic nuclei and necrosis
  • Associated with urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma
  • Immunohistochemistry is helpful


Squamous cell carcinoma
  • See also squamous cell carcinoma
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma: pleomorphic hyperchromatic nuclei, focal eosinophilic dense cytoplasm (keratinized cells)
  • Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma: squamous cells with subtle nuclear abnormalities and keratinization


Mesenchymal neoplasms
    Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • See also rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Pediatric population, < 15 years old
  • Cells are small in size
  • Arranged as single cells and small clusters
  • Scant cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei with no nucleoli; occasional cells with wispy cytoplasm; also cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and cross striations

    Leiomyosarcoma
  • See also leiomyosarcoma
  • Scattered large atypical cells with a moderate amount of cytoplasm
  • Ill-defined cytoplasmic borders
  • Large, hyperchromatic nuclei with occasional nucleoli; irregular nuclear margins


Lymphoma
  • See also lymphoma
  • Cell morphology corresponds to the type of lymphoma
  • Immunohistochemistry is helpful


Melanoma
  • See also melanoma
  • The cells are large, round or oval, with eccentric nuclei
  • The cytoplasm is finely granular and may contain melanin
  • The chromatin is vesicular with macronucleoli
  • S100+, HMB45+, MelanA/A103+

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