Reviewer: Nat Pernick, M.D, PathologyOutlines.com (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 1 July 2011, last major update June 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Rare entity, associated with diabetes, with gas-filled cysts in bladder wall
● Median patient age is 66 years, 64% women, 67% had diabetes mellitus (BJU Int 2007;100:17)
● Due to gas forming bacteria (Clostridium perfringes, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes), which produce gas-filled cysts in bladder wall
● In one study, E. coli was most commonly isolated organism (J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2009;42:393)
● CO2 may be produced by microorganisms through fermentation of glucose
● There may also be impaired transportation of gas, due to local inflammation or other obstructive process (Braz J Infect Dis 2008;12:552)
● Associated with diabetes (50% of cases), chronic cystitis, neurogenic bladder, leukemia/lymphoma
● Commonly presents with pneumaturia
● Diagnosed by radiologic evidence of gas in bladder mucosa
● Rare complication is subcutaneous emphysema (Int J Emerg Med 2011;4:26)
CT scan shows gas in bladder and bladder wall
CT scan of 77 year old woman without diabetes
Pelvic radiograph demonstrates circumlinear streaks of increased radiolucency representing air
● 62 year old woman with E. coli infection and diabetes (Intern Med 2010;49:1879)
● Antibiotics, relieve bladder obstruction
● Cysts often lined by multinucleated giant cells
End of Bladder > Cystitis > Emphysematous cystitis
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patient's clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician.
All information on this website is protected by copyright of PathologyOutlines.com, Inc. Information from third parties may also be protected by copyright. Please contact us at copyrightPathOut@gmail.com with any questions (click here for other contact information).