Acquired nonneoplastic anomalies

Author: Alcides Chaux, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 10 October 2018, last major update July 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2018,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Endometriosis
Cite this page: Chaux, A. Endometriosis. website. Accessed November 18th, 2018.
Definition / general
  • Presence of functional endometrial tissue within bladder
  • Endocervicosis: related disorder with mucinous metaplasia - endocervical and not endometrial type glands, often mucin but no endometrial type stroma or hemosiderin
  • Women between the second and fifth decades
  • Uncommon, occurs in < 2% of all patients with endometriosis
  • Seen in post menopausal women receiving exogenous estrogen
  • Also can occur, very rarely, in men taking estrogens for prostate cancer
  • Usually posterior wall of bladder above trigone or at dome
  • Probably due to retrograde menstruation, which seeds surface of bladder serosa or postsurgical
  • Not due to metaplasia of Müllerian remnants or extension from anterior uterine adenomyosis (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187:538)
Clinical features
  • Bladder is the most common site (70 - 80%) of endometriosis of the urinary tract
  • May develop into endocervicosis (mucinous metaplasia), endometrioid adenocarcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, adenosarcoma
  • Usually associated with prior surgery or female GU symptoms of urgency, frequency, suprapubic pain, rarely hematuria
  • Mass is frequently apparent either by palpation or cystoscopic examination
  • Bladder implants typically occur at vesicouterine pouch; may grow through muscularis into submucosa, producing a luminal bulge or rarely a polypoid mucosal mass (Radiographics 2006;26:1847)
  • Mucosa may appear blue at cystoscopy
Clinical images

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Laparoscopic segmental cystectomy

Gross description
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Resembles endometriosis elsewhere: endometrium-like glandular epithelium associated with endometrial stroma cells and recent or old hemorrhage
  • Rarely, only glands or stroma are found
Microscopic (histologic) images

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