Bladder & ureters
Other tumors
Germ cell tumor

Topic Completed: 1 December 2014

Revised: 27 June 2019

Copyright: 2003-2019,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Bladder germ cell tumor [title]

Page views in 2018: 299
Page views in 2019 to date: 171
Cite this page: Levy G. Germ cell tumor. website. Accessed August 25th, 2019.
Definition / general
  • Includes choriocarcinoma, dermoid cyst, seminoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumors
  • Dermoid cyst: typically females 30-49 years of age
Clinical features
  • Dermoid cysts can contain hair and calcified material
  • Ovarian dermoid cysts may perforate into the bladder and must be excluded
Case reports
  • Excision, radiation for seminomas
Gross description
  • Yolk sac: yellow, soft
  • Seminoma: gray-tan mass
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Choriocarcinoma: syncytotrophoblasts capping sheets of cytotrophoblasts (sheets or aggregates of single irregularly shaped nuclei)
  • Seminoma: sheets or lobules of seminoma cells divided by fibrous trabeculae with aggregates of lymphocytes
  • Yolk sac tumor: multiple patterns (microcystic, macrocystic, papillary and solid)
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Urachal yolk sac tumor

Cytology description
  • Seminoma: loosely cohesive cell clusters of highly atypical large cells and occasional large, single cells with macronucleoli; background of mainly lymphocytes and histiocytes (Diagn Cytopathol 2008;36:734)
Positive stains
Molecular / cytogenetics description
  • Isochromosome 12 present in germ cell tumors
Differential diagnosis
Additional references
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