Bladder
Congenital anomalies
Hypoplasia

Author: Alcides Chaux, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 21 March 2016, last major update July 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2016, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Bladder hypoplasia
Definition / General
  • Bladder with low capacity (volume)
Terminology
Epidemiology
  • Very rare
Etiology
  • Causes include abnormal organogenesis during weeks 5-9 of embryogenesis (syndrome of caudal regression), affecting the development of the primitive cloaca; low urine output/inadequate bladder cycling (due to bilateral renal agenesis, severe renal dysplasia); low outlet resistance (epispadias) or functional bypassing of the bladder (bilateral ureteral ectopia)
Clinical Features
  • Usually accompanied by other genitourinary malformations (renal agenesis, ureter dysplasia, vaginal agenesis, fused renal ectopia) or gastrointestinal malformations (intestinal malrotation, imperforate anus)
  • Also associated with obstructive uropathy, hydronephrosis
Case Reports
Treatment
  • Many require bladder augmentation or staged ureteral reimplantation to achieve adequate bladder capacity