Acquired non-neoplastic anomalies
Lithiasis (stones)

Author: Alcides Chaux, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 16 March 2016, last major update July 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2016,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Lithiasis
Cite this page: Lithiasis (stones). website. Accessed October 20th, 2016.
Definition / General
  • Usually solitary phosphate stones
  • May be urate or oxalate
  • More common in males, usually elderly
  • In developing countries, also occur in prepubescent boys (primary idiopathic calculi)
  • Usually the manifestation of an underlying pathologic condition such as voiding dysfunction (prostatic nodular hyperplasia, urethral stricture, bladder neck contracture, neurogenic bladder) or foreign body (catheter)
  • Calculi may form in upper urinary tract, pass into the bladder, and be retained there (migrant calculi)
Clinical Features
  • Usually solitary, but up to 25% may be multiple
  • Irritative voiding symptoms, intermittent urinary stream, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pelvic pain
  • Mechanical removal, cystolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy
  • Recur in 10% of patients after removal
Additional References