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Acquired non-neoplastic anomalies

Lithiasis (stones)

Reviewers: Alcides Chaux, M.D., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 3 July 2011, last major update April 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● Usually solitary phosphate stones
● May be urate or oxalate


● More common in males, usually elderly
● In developing countries, also occur in prepubescent boys (primary idiopathic calculi)


● Usually the manifestation of an underlying pathologic condition such as voiding dysfunction (prostatic nodular hyperplasia, urethral stricture, bladder neck contracture, neurogenic bladder) or foreign body (catheter)
● Calculi may form in upper urinary tract, pass into the bladder, and be retained there (migrant calculi)

Clinical features

● Usually solitary, but up to 25% may be multiple
● Irritative voiding symptoms, intermittent urinary stream, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pelvic pain


● Mechanical removal, cystolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy
● Recur in 10% of patients after removal

Additional references


End of Bladder > Acquired non-neoplastic anomalies > Lithiasis (stones)

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