Bladder and ureters
Acquired nonneoplastic anomalies
Obstruction - ureters

Topic Completed: 1 May 2012

Minor changes: 2 May 2019

Copyright: 2002-2019,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Ureters obstructive lesions

Sean R. Williamson, M.D.
Page views in 2019: 644
Page views in 2020 to date: 423
Cite this page: Williamson SR. Obstruction - ureters. website. Accessed May 26th, 2020.
Definition / general
  • Intrinsic:
    • Stones ( ≤ 5 mm), usually lodge at (a) ureteropelvic junction, (b) where ureters cross iliac artery and (c) where ureters enter bladder
    • Strictures (congenital or due to sclerosing retroperitoneal fibrosis)
    • Tumors, blood clots, neurogenic causes
  • Extrinsic:
    • Pregnancy, local inflammation, endometriosis, local tumors (ureteral obstruction is a major cause of death from cervical carcinoma)
  • Sclerosing retroperitoneal fibrosis:
    • Adults 40+
    • 70% idiopathic; others associated with ergot derivatives, beta blockers, adjacent inflammation, local tumors
    • Associated with mediastinal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, Riedel thyroiditis
    • May have autoimmune origin, related to the spectrum of IgG4 associated disease (case report of 39 year old man, Pathol Res Pract 2011;207:712)
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils
  • Variable granulomatous inflammation
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