Breast malignant, males, children
Reviewer: Monika Roychowdhury, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 18 November 2012, last major update August 2012
Copyright: (c) 2001-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
See also sentinel lymph nodes
Uses by pathologists
● Historically used for primary diagnosis, not anymore (Pathologica 2011;103:325)
● Now used to evaluate margins at lumpectomy and reduce need for subsequent surgery (Ann Surg Oncol 2007;14:2953, J Am Coll Surg 2005;201:194, Scand J Surg 2009;98:34)
● Diagnosis of non-core specimens, although limitations include artifacts, sampling or interpretation errors, and in situ carcinoma only; recommended to use FNA, core biopsy or imaging as preoperative diagnostic tools (Tumori 1999;85:15)
● Frozen sections for ultrasound guided core needle biopsies may reduce patient stress waiting for paraffin results (BMC Cancer 2009;9:341)
Questions to ask prior to frozen section or intraoperative assessment (if any answer is no, donít do frozen section):
● Is tumor > 1.0 cm?
● Will there be adequate essential diagnostic material after frozen section?
● Will additional material be sent after a biopsy is evaluated?
● Will diagnosis have immediate and relevant impact on operative management of patient?
● Note: some specimens may not be diagnostic at frozen section, including adenosquamous carcinoma-low grade (Histopathology 2006;49:603)
Tumor with positive margins (Fig 1A/1B)
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (Fig 1A/1B)
● Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005;129:1565, Ann Surg Oncol 2012;19:3236
End of Breast malignant, males, children > Miscellaneous > Frozen sections
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