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CD Markers


Reviewer: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 27 December 2011, last major update December 2011
Copyright: (c) 2002-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● A glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein involved in cell adhesion and tumor metastasis


● Also called heat stable antigen homologue (HAS)


● A glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein with mucin-like adhesion properties
● Breast cancer cells with CD44+/CD24- phenotype are associated with stem cell properties (Mod Pathol 2011 Oct 28 [Epub ahead of print])
● Promotes antigen dependent proliferation of B cells and prevents differentiation into plasma cells

Clinical features

● A ligand of P-selectin on tumor cells that is associated with in vitro invasiveness (Tumour Biol 2002;23:139, Cancer Res 2005;65:10783)
● Modifies risk for progression in multiple sclerosis (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:15041)


● Strong expression is a poor prognostic factor in carcinomas of bile duct (Cancer Lett 2006;235:34), breast (with CD44, Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011 Nov 27 [Epub ahead of print]), colorectum (Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:6574), gallbladder (Med Oncol 2011 Dec 2 [Epub ahead of print]), liver (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:5518), lung-nonsmall (Br J Cancer 2003;88:231), ovary (Am J Pathol 2002;161:1215)

Micro images

Left to right: bladder-normal; bladder and ovarian serous adenocarcinoma

Left to right: carcinomas of ampulla (fig e/f), colon, lung (nonsmall cell), ovary

Urothelial carcinoma-invasive

Positive staining - normal

● All B cells, granulocytes; also apocrine sweat glands, epithelial cells, fallopian tube, kidney cells, muscle, nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:6374), some neurons

Positive staining - disease

● Apocrine metaplasia of breast (Mol Oncol 2009;3:220), exosomes (membrane vesicles 40-100 nm released by different cell types from a late endosomal cellular compartment, J Transl Med 2011 Jun 8;9:86)
● Most pre-B ALL / lymphoblastic lymphoma, virtually all B cell lymphomas
● Breast cancer: ductal type has cytoplasmic expression, invasive micropapillary has strong expression with typical inverted apical membrane pattern (Breast 2011 Oct 18 [Epub ahead of print])
● Chordoma (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;338:1890), various solid carcinomas (Pathol Res Pract 2005;201:479), biliary tract dysplasia/carcinoma (Hum Pathol 2010;41:1558), pancreatic ductal carcinoma and IPMN (Hum Pathol 2010;41:1466), Wilm’s tumor (Hum Pathol 1990;21:536)

Negative staining

● Plasma cells, T cells, monocytes, mast cells, red blood cells, platelets; also ovarian epithelium, multiple myeloma, chondrosarcoma

Additional references

MIM 600074

End of CD Markers > CD24

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