CD Markers
CD34

Reviewer: Lauren Stuart, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 22 December 2015, last major update May 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2015, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD34 [title]

Definition / General
  • Commonly used marker of hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelial cells (OMIM #142230)
Terminology
  • Also called hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34
  • CD34+ stromal cells are called dendritic interstitial cells
Pathophysiology
  • Intercellular adhesion protein and cell surface glycoprotein; ligand is CD62L (L-selectin)
  • May mediate attachment of hematopoietic stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells, although specific function is unknown
  • CD34 staining defines adult hematopoietic stem cells, but CD34+ cells can also differentiate into neural cells (Exp Neurol 2006;197:399)
Clinical Features
Interpretation
  • Membranous stain
  • Endothelium acts as a positive internal control
  • Staining represents presence of protein, not cross reactivity, despite wide range of tissues that are CD34+ (Am J Pathol 2000;156:21)
Uses by Pathologists
Micro Images


Images hosted on PathOut server:

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Epithelioid angiosarcoma, lung

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Hemangioendo-
thelioma, heart

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PreB-ALL, kidney

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Epithelioid sarcoma, CD34+

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Leukemia vasculitis

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Littoral cell angioma, spleen, CD34-

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Myeloid sarcoma, bone

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Sinonasal hemangio-
pericytoma, CD34-

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Neck tumor, pseudoangiomatous variant

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Storiform collagenoma



Normal:

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Blasts and megakaryocytes

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Quality control

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Fibroblastic cells (CD34+ in normal stomach, CD34- in intestinal gastric carcinoma)

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CD34+ stromal cells (normal stomach & colon, gastric adenocarcinoma)

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CD34+ vascular endothelial cells (normal and gastric adenocarcinoma)



Gastrointestinal stromal tumor / GIST:

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GIST vs. SFT

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Extraintestinal GIST

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Stomach GIST



Solitary fibrous tumor:

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Pleura (malignant tumor)

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Thigh



Vascular tumors:

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Angiosarcomas, liver

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Ovary

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Skin, scalp

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Epithelioid angiosarcoma, bone

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Hemangioendoth-
elioma, infantile liver

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Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of bone (left, fig 2B); CNS (right, fig F)

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Pleura

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Glomangioma of liver

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Hemangiomas, capillary type: endometrium (left, fig 2C); testis (right, fig 1B)

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Hemangiomas, cavernous type: lung (left, fig 1C); spermatic cord (right, fig B)

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Juvenile (FNA)

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Hemangiopericytoma, CNS, CD34+

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Kaposi's sarcoma



Other:

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Aggressive angiomyxoma: penis/scrotum (left); spermatic cord (right)

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Skin tumor, CD34+

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Angiomyofibroblastoma

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Breast carcinoma

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Chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis

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Hepatocellular carcinoma: tumor cells are CD34 negative, but intravascular tumor clusters are lined by CD34+ endothelial cells

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Various images

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Myofibroma, CD34-

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Neurothekeoma, CD34-

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Perineurioma, extraneural

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Pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia (PASH) of breast: stroma is CD34+

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Solitary sclerotic fibroma, finger

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Spindle cell lipoma has CD34+ stroma: breast (left); salivary glands (right, fig D)

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Superficial acral fibromyxoma, soft tissue, F2

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CD34 distinguishes displaced epithelium

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CD34+ fibroblastic cells

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Fibrotic stroma, epithelial component

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Vascular leiomyoma, FA



Positive Staining - Normal
Positive Staining - Disease
Negative Staining