CD Markers
CD36

Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 30 December 2015, last major update January 2011

Copyright: (c) 2002-2015, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD36 [title]
Definition / General
  • Scavenger receptor with numerous physiologic functions
Terminology
  • Also known as platelet GPIV or GPIIIb, fatty acid translocase (FAT)
Pathophysiology
  • Numerous potential physiologic functions (see Clinical Features below)
  • Serves as a scavenger receptor for oxidized phospholipids, apoptotic cells and certain microbial pathogens (Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 2010;121:206)
  • Receptor for thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL
  • Gives rise to Naka antigen
Diagrams / Tables
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CD36 and macrophage phagocytosis

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LDL and thrombus formation

Clinical Features
  • Associated with platelet disorders:
    • Acts as cell adhesion molecule in platelet adhesion and aggregation, platelet-monocyte and platelet-tumor cell interactions
    • CD36 isoantibody may cause posttransfusion purpura and platelet transfusion refractoriness (Transfusion 1995;35:777), life threatening hypotension and thrombocytopenia (Transfusion 2005;45:803) or hydrops fetalis (Thromb Haemost 2006;95:267)
    • CD36 deficiency causes platelet glycoprotein IV deficiency (OMIM - 608404)
      • Is more common in Asians and Africans
      • Is divided into 2 subgroups
      • Type I is characterized by platelets and monocytes / macrophages exhibiting complete CD36 deficiency
      • Type II lacks the surface expression of CD36 in platelets, but expression in monocytes / macrophages is near normal
    • CD36 deficiency is associated with hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and mild hypertension (Mol Cell Biochem 2007;299:19)

  • Associated with atherosclerosis:
    • Scavenger receptor for oxidized LDL (Atherosclerosis 2006;184:15) and shed photoreceptor outer segments
    • Also transports long chain fatty acids
    • Upregulated in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FASEB J 2005;19:2063)
    • Genetic variations in CD36 are associated with susceptibility to coronary heart disease type 7
    • CD36 may be taste receptor for fatty acids (J Clin Invest 2005;115:2965)

  • Associated with malaria:
    • Site of cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to microvascular endothelial cells
    • CD36 deficiency is frequent in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is associated surprisingly with susceptibility to severe cerebral malaria

  • Associated with Alzheimer’s disease:
    • May mediate binding to fibrillar beta-amyloid
    • Present in microglia and endothelium in Alzheimer's disease
    • Low levels on peripheral blood leukocytes in Alzheimer patients (Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:515)
Positive Staining - Normal
  • Platelets, monocytes, macrophages, basophils, endothelial cells, early erythroid cells, megakaryocytes
  • Also adipose tissue, breast epithelial cells, cardiac muscle, Sertoli cells of testis (elderly men and those with hypospermatogenesis, Hum Pathol 2004;35:34), skeletal muscle, splenic cells
Positive Staining - Disease
Negative Staining
Additional References