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CD Markers

CD36


Reviewer: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 25 January 2011, last major update January 2011
Copyright: (c) 2002-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
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● Scavenger receptor with numerous physiologic functions

Terminology
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● Also known as platelet GPIV or GPIIIb, fatty acid translocase (FAT)

Physiology
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● Numerous potential physiologic functions (see Clinical Features below)
● Serves as a scavenger receptor for oxidized phospholipids, apoptotic cells and certain microbial pathogens (Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 2010;121:206)
● Receptor for thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL
● Gives rise to Naka antigen

Diagrams
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CD36 and macrophage phagocytosis

LDL and thrombus formation

Clinical features
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Associated with platelet disorders:
● Acts as cell adhesion molecule in platelet adhesion and aggregation, platelet-monocyte and platelet-tumor cell interactions
● CD36 isoantibody may cause posttransfusion purpura and platelet transfusion refractoriness (Transfusion 1995;35:777), life threatening hypotension and thrombocytopenia (Transfusion 2005;45:803) or hydrops fetalis (Thromb Haemost 2006;95:267)
● CD36 deficiency causes platelet glycoprotein IV deficiency (MIM:608404); is more common in Asians and Africans; is divided into 2 subgroups; type I is characterized by platelets and monocytes/macrophages exhibiting complete CD36 deficiency; type II lacks the surface expression of CD36 in platelets, but expression in monocytes/macrophages is near normal
● CD36 deficiency is associated with hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and mild hypertension (Mol Cell Biochem 2007;299:19)

Associated with atherosclerosis:
● Scavenger receptor for oxidized LDL (Atherosclerosis 2006;184:15) and shed photoreceptor outer segments
● Also transports long chain fatty acids
● Upregulated in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FASEB J 2005;19:2063)
● Genetic variations in CD36 are associated with susceptibility to coronary heart disease type 7
● CD36 may be taste receptor for fatty acids (J Clin Invest 2005;115:2965)

Associated with malaria:
● Site of cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to microvascular endothelial cells
● CD36 deficiency is frequent in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is associated surprisingly with susceptibility to severe cerebral malaria

Associated with Alzheimer’s disease:
● May mediate binding to fibrillar beta-amyloid
● Present in microglia and endothelium in Alzheimer’s disease
● Low levels on peripheral blood leukocytes in Alzheimer patients (Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:515)

Positive staining - normal
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● Platelets, monocytes, macrophages, basophils, endothelial cells, early erythroid cells, megakaryocytes
● Also adipose tissue, breast epithelial cells, cardiac muscle, Sertoli cells of testis (elderly men and those with hypospermatogenesis, Hum Pathol 2004;35:34), skeletal muscle, splenic cells

Positive staining - disease
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● Alzheimer’s disease (microglia, endothelial cells, Am J Pathol 2002;160:101), AML M4-M7, cervical LSIL (Hum Pathol 1994;25:73), CML (60%, Mod Pathol 1998;11:1211)
● Gaucher cells (Am J Clin Path 2004;122:359), myxoid liposarcoma (Am J Clin Path 1995;103:20)
● Plasmacytoid T cell lymphoma (Am J Clin Path 1990;93:822), transient myeloproliferative disorder in Down’s syndrome (Am J Clin Path 2001;116:204)

Negative staining
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● AML M0-M2 (usually), AML-M3 (Am J Clin Path 1998;109:211)

Additional references
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MIM 173510, Wikipedia

End of CD Markers > CD36


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