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CD Markers


Reviewers: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 22 January 2011, last major update January 2011
Copyright: (c) 2002-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● Endothelial ATPase that blocks platelet activation


● Also called ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase-1)


● Plasma membrane-bound enzyme that hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP (Platelets 2005;16:159), and acts as important inhibitor of platelet activation by blocking platelet aggregation responses to ADP
● Also degrades the extracellular ATP released during tissue injury, which otherwise would trigger inflammation
● Highly expressed on regulatory Foxp3(+) CD4 T cells
● May have a therapeutic anti-thrombotic effect (Semin Thromb Hemost 2005;31:234)
● Its biochemical activity is lost at sites of acute vascular injury, such as in ischemia reperfusion and immune graft rejection (Blood Cells Mol Dis 2006;36:217)
● Also regulates vascular and immune cell adhesion and signaling events pivotal in inflammation (Biochem J 2006;396:23)


Treg markers


CD39 and platelet activation

Clinical features

● Increased expression in lymphocytes of HIV+ patients (Biochim Biophys Acta 2005;1746:129)
● Presence in coronary atheromatous plaque may prevent acute coronary syndromes (Am J Cardiol 2005;95:632)
● Expression in HIV correlates with progressive disease and viral load (J Virol 2011;85:1287)
● Can be used to isolate functionally active Treg from peripheral blood (J Immunol Methods 2009;346:55)


● No significant clinical use by pathologists

Micro images

Donor liver: endothelial cells of portal vein (pv) and hepatic artery (ha) express CD39, but quiescent sinusoidal endothelial cells and bile duct (bd) epithelium do not

Positive staining - normal

● Activated B cells, cytotoxic T cells (Eur J Immunol 1992;22:2681), monocytes, macrophages, NK cells
● Endothelial cells, Langerhans cells (J Invest Dermatol 2005;125:482), pancreas (J Histochem Cytochem 2002;50:549), placenta (Eur J Histochem 2004;48:253), vascular smooth muscle

Additional references

MIM 601752

End of CD Markers > CD39

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