CD Markers
Other (uncommon markers)

Topic Completed: 13 November 2019

Minor changes: 3 August 2020

Copyright: 2019-2020,, Inc.

Nat Pernick, M.D.
Page views in 2020 to date: 324
Cite this page: Pernick N. Other (uncommon markers). website. Accessed August 13th, 2020.
Definition / general
  • This topic contains CD Markers that are uncommon and have low traffic
  • They often have no significant use for pathologists, but are included for completeness
  • May not be a current CD marker; information is based on older sources
  • Designation for CDw149 which was deleted at the 7th HLDA Workshop (Tissue Antigens 2000;56:258)
  • Poorly characterized, with little information available
  • Also called Rh related antigen, MEM-133
  • Similar distribution as CD47 but dimmer
  • Recognizes a clustered subset of CD47 (Tissue Antigens 2000;56:258)
  • Positive staining: lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils (weak), eosinophils (weak) and platelets (weak)
  • Negative staining: erythrocytes
  • Also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14 (TNFRSF14), Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) (GeneCards)
  • Ligand to B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA, Diagn Pathol 2012;7:142)
  • Acts as receptor for Herpes simplex virus (Virology 2014;448:185)
  • Recurrent mutations associated with pediatric follicular lymphoma (Haematologica 2013;98:1237)
  • Acquired mutations associated with worse prognosis in follicular lymphoma (Cancer Res 2010;70:9166)
  • No uses for pathologists at this time
  • Positive staining: T cells (constitutive or induced)
CD272 / BTLA
  • Programmed cell death ligand 2; also called B7DC
  • Involved in the costimulatory signal, essential for T lymphocyte proliferation and interferon gamma production
  • Found in the plasma membrane
  • Also called ICOS
  • Enhances basic T-cell responses to a foreign antigen, namely proliferation, secretion of lymphokines, upregulation of molecules that mediate cell-cell interaction and effective help for antibody secretion by B-cells
  • Essential both for efficient interaction between T and B-cells and for normal antibody responses to T-cell dependent antigens
  • Plays a critical role in CD40-mediated class switching of immunoglobin isotypes
  • A type I membrane protein
  • Defects cause ICOS deficiency (OMIM 607594), a form of common variable immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections of the respiratory and digestive tracts, but without splenomegaly, autoimmune disease, sarcoid-like granulomas, overt T cell immunodeficiency
  • Present in: activated T cells, tonsillar T cells, fetal and newborn thymic medulla
  • Reference: Swiss-Prot entry
  • TLR1_HUMAN, Q15399, OMIM 601194, TLR1, Toll-like receptor 1 (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like) (TIL)
  • TLR2_HUMAN, O60603, OMIM 603028, TLR2, TIL4, Toll-like receptor 2 (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like protein 4)
  • No information at this time
CD 351
  • First described as CD352 at HLDA9 in 2011 (Immunol Lett 2011;134:104)
  • Also known as Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F6 (SLAMF6), Ly108 and NTBA
  • Member of SLAM (CD150) family of receptors, which are leukocyte cell-surface glycoproteins involved in leukocyte activation; these molecules and their adaptor protein SAP contribute to germinal center formation, generation of plasma cells and memory B cells (Immunol Lett 2011;134:129)
  • Costimulatory molecule with CD28 implicated in formation of Th17 lymphocytes and IL17A expression (J Biol Chem 2012;287:38168)
  • One of several risk loci for Graves disease of thyroid (Hum Mol Genet 2013;22:3347)
  • Increased expression on surface of T cells in system lupus erythematosus (J Immunol 2012;188:1206); this pathway may be defective in SLE T cells (Autoimmunity 2011;44:211)
  • No usage for pathologists at this time
  • Positive staining (normal): B cells, plasma cells (Immunol Lett 2011;134:122); also NK, T cells (Wikipedia)
  • Also known as SLAMF8
  • First described at HLAD9 in 2011 (Immunol Lett 2011;134:104)
  • Member of CD2 family of cell surface proteins involved in lymphocyte activation (Wikipedia)
  • Cell surface receptor expressed upon activation of macrophages by IFN-γ or bacteria
  • Negatively regulates inflammatory responses via very high NADPH oxidase (Nox2) enzyme activity (J Immunol 2012;188:5829)
  • Higher baseline expression in postmenopausal women with ER+ breast cancer is associated with poor antiproliferative response to neoadjuvant anastrozole (Clin Cancer Res 2013;19:2775)
  • No uses by pathologists at this time
  • Positive staining: lymphoid tissue (GeneCards)
  • Triggering REceptor on Myeloid cells; member of Ig superfamily
  • sTREM1: soluble levels of TREM1
  • Part of family of immune sensors which signal innate immune system and amplifies immune responses that promote pro-inflammatory cytokine production; neutrophils are major source of TREM1
  • TREM1 is an activating receptor and requires association with transmembrane adapter molecule DAP12 (DNAX-associated protein 12) for cell signaling (PLoS One 2013;8:e82498, J Leukoc Biol 2013;93:209)
  • TREM1 and MMPs orchestrate an "adaptive" form of innate immunity by modulating the monocyte response to endotoxin (J Leukoc Biol 2012;91:933)
  • Dendritic cells: TREM1 induction by hypoxic microenvironment activates immature dendritic cells and regulates Th1 cell trafficking (Eur J Immunol 2013;43:949)
  • Positive staining: Myeloid cells

Clinical featuresUses by pathologists
  • Differentiate bacterial vs. non-bacterial infections (PLoS One 2013;8:e65436)
  • Early diagnosis of sepsis (BMC Infect Dis 2012;12:157)
  • CD355
    • Class I MHC Restricted T cell Associated Molecule
    • First identified at 9th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshop in 2011 / HLDA9 (Immunol Lett 2011;134:104)
    • Expressed in epithelial cells along lateral membrane; important for early cell-cell contacts and cell-substrate interactions (J Cell Biochem 2010;111:111)
    • Binds to cell adhesion molecule nectin-like 2 (Necl2) (Structure 2013;21:1430)
    • Rapidly induced in NK, NKT and CD8+ T cells (Mol Immunol 2009;46:3379); may promote cytotoxic function of NK cells and lead to IFN-γ secretion by CD8+ T cells through interaction with Necl2 (J Immunol 2013;190:4868, Curr Opin Immunol 2012;24:246)
    • 3 common variants of CRTAM gene are associated with an increased rate of asthma exacerbations based on a low circulating vitamin D level (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:368)
    • No uses by pathologists at this time
    • Positive staining: Epithelial cells; activated CD8+ and natural killer T cells
  • Also called TNFRSF21, death receptor 6
  • Member of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily
  • First characterized at Ninth HLDA Workshop (HLDA9) (Immunol Lett 2011;134:104)
  • Different from HLA-DR6 (Int J Rheum Dis 2014;17:268) and protein product of direct repeat 6 (associated with HHV6A and HHV6B, J Virol 2010;84:2648, Virology 2014;452:254)
  • Induces apoptosis when overexpressed (FEBS Lett 1998;431:351)
  • Highly expressed in brain
  • May be involved in pathogenesis of endometriosis (Am J Reprod Immunol 2013;70:485)
  • No specific uses by pathologists at this time
  • Positive stainign: Serum DR6 protein levels elevated in ovarian carcinoma (Cancer Biol Ther 2011;12:169); also adult sarcoma, particularly synovial sarcoma (PLoS One 2012;7:e36525)
  • Negative staining: Serum DR6 levels not elevated in uterine carcinosarcoma, bladder, liver or pancreatic cancer
  • CD360
  • Type I cytokine (Wikipedia-Type I cytokine receptor, Immunobiology 2009;214:41) identified during 9th HLDA Workshop (Immunol Lett 2011;134:104)
  • Produced when immune reaction reaches its peak by CD4+ T cells
  • Regulates T cell, B cell, NK cell and myeloid cell functions (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010;392:171)
  • Binds to a receptor complex of IL21R and the common gamma chain receptor subunit (CD132 / IL2R gamma)
  • Also induces PD-1 expression on T cells and plays a role in an immunologic cascade (Korean Circ J 2013;43:38)
  • IL21 and IL21R gene polymorphisms may be associated with: Hashimoto thyroiditis (BMC Endocr Disord 2013;13:26), HBV infection (Hum Immunol 2013;74:567)
  • Kawasaki disease (Korean Circ J 2013;43:38)
  • Multiple sclerosis (Genes Immun 2010;11:279)
  • Osteoporosis (J Bone Miner Res 2010;25:1042)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (Arthritis Rheum 2009;60:2402)
  • See also Int J Mol Med 2005;16:609)
  • No specific uses for pathologists at this time
  • Positive staining - normal: Mature B cells, also T cells, NK cells, keratinocytes, some myeloid cells.
  • Positive staining - disease: Increased expression in systemic sclerosis (Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:856); expressed in rheumatoid arthritis by synovial fibroblasts and synovial macrophages (Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:1468)
  • CD361
    Revised 2 August 2020
    Revised 16 July 2020
    Revised 16 July 2020
    Revised 21 June 2020
    Revised 19 June 2020
    Revised 17 June 2020
  • CLEC12A is a type II transmembrane protein (Clin Transl Immunology 2016;5:e57) easily detectable by flow cytometry
  • Identifies most DUX4+ B-ALL cases (Haematologica 2019;104:e352)
  • May be useful in identifying residual disease in AML (Blood Rev 2019;34:26)
  • Has important role in recognizing dead cells, Plasmodium derived hemozoin and cerebral malaria development (Cell Rep 2019;28:30)
  • Positive staining (normal): innate immune cells - granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells; basophils (Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2018;94:520)
  • Positive staining (disease): acute myeloid leukemia cells (Clin Transl Immunology 2016;5:e57)
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