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Cervix-Cytology

Benign / non-neoplastic lesions

Candida and related fungi


Reviewer: Farnaz Hasteh, M.D., UCSD Medical Center (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 11 June 2011, last major update November 2010
Copyright: (c) 2006-2010, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
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● Present in 3% of pap smears, doesn’t necessarily indicate a symptomatic infection (Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 21:14)

Terminology
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● Also called vulvovaginal candidiasis, yeast infection

Epidemiology
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● Common in reproductive ages but it can occur in any age
● More common in late luteal phase of cycle
● 75% of women get Candida infection at some time during their lives
● Associated with immunosupression (steroid use, HIV and diabetes), antibiotics, chemotherapy, soaps

Etiology
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● Due to changes in vaginal PH, glycogen or flora

Clinical features
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● Itching, erythema
● Thick white discharge

Treatment
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● Anti-fungals

Cytology description
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Candida albicans: pseudohyphae and yeasts; reactive squamous epithelial cells in the form of “shish kebab”
Geotrichum: arthroconidia (The University of Adelaide, DeMay: The Pap Test: Exfoliative Gynecologic Cytology; 2005)
Candida glabarata: formerly Torulopsis glabrata; only yeast forms, no pseudohyphae (Wikipedia)
● Mild hyperkeratosis, inflammation and minimal nuclear changes (atypia)

Cytology images
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Candida albicans - various images


       

Geotrichum candidum showing chains of single celled arthroconidia

Virtual slides
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Candida

Differential diagnosis
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● Mucus strands

Additional references
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eMedicine, Wikipedia

End of Cervix-cytology > Benign / non-neoplastic lesions > Candida and related fungi


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