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Normal cells / non-neoplastic findings
Reviewer: Farnaz Hasteh, M.D., UCSD Medical Center (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2011, last major update December 2010
Copyright: (c) 2006-2010, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Nonspecific finding, particularly if low numbers or during premenstrual and menstrual phases
● Also called acute inflammation, PMN (polymorphonuclear neutrophils)
● Neutrophils adherent to squamous cells are called “cannonballs” or “pus balls”, which is common in Chlamydia infection (DeMay: The Pap Test: Exfoliative Gynecologic Cytology (1st Ed); ASCP, 2005)
● Common finding, reported in 5-25% of cases (Fam Med 1992;24:447, Acta Cytol 2001;45:5)
● Physiological or hormonal process
● Infection (bacterial, fungal or viral) - are associated with and phagocytosed by Trichomonas (Cytopathology 2000;11:326) and Chlamydia (CMAJ 1998;158:41)
● Physical (IUD)
● Neoplastic or therapeutic
● Pruritus and leukorrhea
● Associated with benign reactive changes in squamous and endocervical cells
● Can be seen in the background of dysplasia or a neoplasm
● Multilobated, hyperchromatic cells; may have background of blood and necrotic debris
Neutrophils and histiocytes
End of Cervix-cytology > Normal cells / non-neoplastic findings > Neutrophils
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