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Normal cells / non-neoplastic findings


Reviewer: Farnaz Hasteh, M.D., UCSD Medical Center (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 5 May 2014, last major update December 2010
Copyright: (c) 2006-2010, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● Defined histologically as abnormal keratinization of the squamous epithelium with persistence of the cell nuclei in the superficial cells


● Due to SIL or infection

Clinical features

● Associated with dysplasia more commonly than hyperkeratosis

Cytology description

● Usually small, round or polygonal squamous cells with dense orangophilic to eosinophilic cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei
● Single flat cells, layered strips or “pearls”
● Can be associated with inflammation (like fungus)
● May be associated with SIL (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187:997)
● SIL cases tend to have irregular chromatin clumping, irregular nuclear membranes, disorganized growth pattern, less hyperkeratosis (Diagn Cytopathol 1997;17:447)

Cytology images


Parakeratosis - various images

Liquid-based cytology

Parakeratosis, suggestive of LSIL

Contributed by Dr. Marilin Rosa, University of Florida (USA)

End of Cervix-cytology > Normal cells / non-neoplastic findings > Parakeratosis

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