Coagulation
Therapy related coagulopathies
Heparin - low molecular weight

Author: Jeremy Parsons, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 28 April 2016, last major update June 2012

Copyright: (c) 2002-2016, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Heparin [title] AND low molecular weight[title]

Cite this page: Heparin - low molecular weight . PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/coagulationheparinLMW.html. Accessed December 7th, 2016.
Definition / General
  • Can be used instead of standard heparin for many patients, with similar efficacy and safety
  • Produced by breaking heparin into shorter polysaccharide chains
  • Molecular weight is approximately 5,000 daltons
Diagrams / Tables

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Function of LMWH

Clinical Features
  • Less likely to bind to acute phase reactant proteins, platelets, platelet factor 4, macrophages and other sites, due to its shorter length
  • Has more predictable anticoagulant effect than standard heparin, less need for laboratory monitoring, lower incident of heparin induced thrombocytopenia, greater bioavailability
  • Longer half life than standard heparin (4 vs. 1.5 hours), which is prolonged in renal failure
  • Inhibits factor Xa by 2 to 4x more than factor IIa, so does not substantially prolong PT and PTT
  • Unlike regular heparin, does not as readily inhibit thrombin or factor IXa (this also contributes to a lower number of bleeding side effects)
Laboratory
  • Typically do not monitor except for periodic platelet counts
  • Indications for monitoring include pregnancy, renal failure, obesity, prolonged use, infants and children, patients at high risk for bleeding / thrombosis
  • Monitor by measuring anti-factor Xa activity, drawn 4 hours after injection
  • Typical therapeutic range is 0.6 to 1.0 U/ml for twice a day dosing, higher for once a day dosing, 1.0 to 2.0 U/ml for prophylactic dosing
  • Effects are reversed with protamine sulfate
Additional References