Colon tumor
Carcinoma
Small early flat carcinoma

Author: Raul Gonzalez M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 3 January 2017, last major update August 2015

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Small early flat carcinoma
Cite this page: Small early flat carcinoma. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/colontumorsmallearlyflat.html. Accessed March 1st, 2017.
Definition / General
  • Term used primarily in Japan for low stage colorectal carcinomas with flat configuration
  • Not widely diagnosed in the USA; not officially recognized by the WHO
Epidemiology
  • Represents 6% - 10% of colonic cancers diagnosed in Japan
  • Does occur in Western countries (Gut 2002;51:550)
Sites
Pathophysiology
Etiology
Clinical Features
  • May act aggressively despite small size
Diagnosis
Prognostic Factors
Case Reports
Treatment
  • May be curable using endoscopic mucosal resection
Clinical Images

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Depressed lesion in colon

Gross Description
  • Flat, plaque-like lesion, often with central depression
  • Malignancy typically measures 1 cm or less
Gross Images

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Slightly concaved surface

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Prominent concave surface

Micro Description
  • Adenocarcinoma limited to mucosa or submucosa, by definition
  • Height is usually less than twice the height of adjacent normal mucosa
  • Architectural changes mild; cytologic features resemble high grade dysplasia
Micro Images

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Invasion of submucosa

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Minute focus of submucosal invasion (arrow)

Molecular / Cytogenetics Description
  • Loss of heterozygosity of 17p, 18p, 18q, and 22q, coupled with LOH of other loci (Ann Oncol 2006;17:43)