Home   Chapter Home   Jobs   Conferences   Fellowships   Books



Advertisement


Advertisement
General - Embryology

Reviewer: Poonam Sharma, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 May 2013, last major update October 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Drawings
=========================================================================

4 weeks-relation of gut to yolk sac

Additional references
=========================================================================




General - Anatomy

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 May 2013, last major update August 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Regions (AJCC)
=========================================================================

Vassels and nerves
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Musculature

Gastroesophageal junction

Esophageal sphincter


Diaphragmatic crura

Arterial blood supply

Venous drainage


Nerves

Lymphatic drainage

Cervical region

Endoscopic images
=========================================================================

Z line

Gross images
=========================================================================

Gastroesophageal junction

Micro images
=========================================================================

Gastroesophageal junction

Gastric fundal mucosa




General - Histology

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 3 July 2013, last major update August 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Drawings
=========================================================================

Various layers

Micro images
=========================================================================

Full thickness


Esophageal fold (trichrome)

Upper third



Squamous epithelium:

Thin basal zone

Monolayer basal cells

Squamous epithelium with intraepithelial lymphocytes



Mucosa and submucosa:

Mucosa and submucosa

Muscularis mucosae

Section of esophageal mucosa

Submucosal glands and ducts

Alcian blue

With squamous metaplasia


Esophageal musculature

Histologic features

Esophageal cardiac glands

Esophageal inlet patch

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

Normal esophagus




General - Biopsy

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 May 2013, last major update August 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================




Congenital anomalies - Atresia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update August 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Classification


Common types

Operative repair

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================




Congenital anomalies - Ectopic gastric tissue

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update August 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Mucosal biopsy shows antral type mucosa
and a small fragment of squamous epithelium

Various images

Endoscopy images
=========================================================================

Salmon colored patch




Congenital anomalies - Ectopic pancreatic tissue

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update August 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Pancreatic type parenchyma

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================




Congenital anomalies - Ectopic sebaceous glands

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 1 July 2013, last major update August 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

In lamina propria surrounded by lymphocytes

Underlying sebaceous gland

Cuboidal / squamoid cells




Congenital anomalies - Fistula (congenital)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update August 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Various types of fistulas

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Tracheo-esophageal fistula

Micro images
=========================================================================

Residual Tracheobronchial Remnants
Fig 1: GERD with cardiac-type metaplasia
Fig 2-3: plates of mature cartilage and acini of minor salivary glands
Fig 4: branchial cleft-like cysts




Congenital anomalies - Paterson-Brown-Kelly or Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update September 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Upper esophageal web

Esophageal web

Micro description
=========================================================================




Congenital anomalies - Rings

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update September 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Netter drawings of A and B rings

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Endoscopy images
=========================================================================

With distal hiatal hernia

Meat (chicken) impaction

Mulitple rings


Schatzki ring




Congenital anomalies - Stenosis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update September 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================




Congenital anomalies - Webs

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update September 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Various endoscopic images




Esophagitis - General

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update September 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Aspergillus

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 10 June 2013, last major update September 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Multiple confluent ulcers

Cytology description
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Bacterial

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 11 June 2013, last major update September 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Candida

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 11 June 2013, last major update September 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Focal erosion

Tan-yellow plaques with mucosal erythema

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Neutrophilic infiltrate

Pseudohyphae

GMS


PAS staining


PAS staining

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

Candidiasis

Positive stains
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Chemical (corrosive)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 11 June 2013, last major update September 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Reaction to caustic injury

Micro description
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - CMV - cytomegalovirus

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 11 June 2013, last major update September 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Intranuclear inclusions (H&E and EM)

H&E and CMV immunostain

CMV and leishmaniasis

Positive stains
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Crohn's disease

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 12 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Eosinophilic

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Endoscopy: ringed contractions

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

GERD features plus extensive eosinophils

GERD-like changes

Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick


Large number of intraepithelial eosinophils and eosinophilic microabscess

Moth-eaten appearance due to intercellular edema

Reflux esophagitis and eosinophilic esophagitis

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics images
=========================================================================

Eotaxin-3 mRNA expression

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Food granuloma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 12 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Micro images
=========================================================================

Food granuloma




Esophagitis - Graft versus host disease (GVHD)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 12 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Apoptotic squamous cells

With lymphocytic infiltrate

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Granulomatous

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 12 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Case reports
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Herpes simplex esophagitis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Punched out ulcers

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Figure 1

Ground glass intranuclear inclusions

Multinucleated giant cells

Erosive herpes esophagitis -
contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick


Fig 1: contributed by Dr. Nilesh Patel, California - 70 year old immunocompentent man with candida and herpes esophagitis

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

Herpes esophagitis

Positive stains
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - HIV / human immunodeficiency virus

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 12 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Infectious esophagitis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 12 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Leishmaniasis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Leishmaniasis in HIV+ patient

CMV and leishmaniasis




Esophagitis - Lymphocytic

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Various images

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Pill induced

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Well-demarcated round ulcers

Micro description
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Radiation

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma:

Radiation has destroyed tumor

Deep ulcer with necrotic base


Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Normally oriented epithelium is thinner than normal

Radiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Irradiated squamous carcinoma

Neovascularization (highlighted with CD31)




Esophagitis - Reflux esophagitis / gastroesophageal reflux disease / GERD

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Three stages of reflux esophagitis

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Esophagogastric junction

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Longitudinal ulcers

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Basal cell hyperplasia and elongated papillae

Thin basal zone layer, papillae <50% epithelial thickness

Elongated papillae

Moderate basal cell hyperplasia

Marked neutrophilic infiltrate

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Sclerotherapy / sclerosing agent related

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Esophagus

Gastro-esophageal region

Micro description
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Esophagitis - Tuberculosis (TB)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Granulomatous inflammation with necrosis




Non-neoplastic disorders - Achalasia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Dilated esophagus

Dilated esophagus

Massive dilation

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Various images

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Atypical regenerative hyperplasia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 11 July 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Squamous cell carcinoma versus atypical regenerative hyperplasia

Various images

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Black esophagus

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Perforated esophagus (1) with intraluminal hematoma (2)

Extensive esophageal perforation with distal perforation

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Extensive ulceration and necrosis

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Celiac disease

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Cricopharyngeal dysphagia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Drawings
=========================================================================

Cricopharyngeus muscle-1 (drawing on left, near bottom)

Cricopharyngeus muscle-2

Micro description
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Cysts

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

See bronchogenic, duplication, and inclusion cysts below

General
=========================================================================



Bronchogenic cysts

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Cyst lined by respiratory epithelium




Duplication cysts

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Defect of the muscular layer

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Cyst wall

Squamous cell carcinoma



Inclusion cysts

General
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Diverticula

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Types
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Drawings
=========================================================================

Zenker's

Gross images
=========================================================================

Zenker's diverticula

Epiphrenic diverticula

Epiphrenic: defect in
esophageal wall causes
arterial perforation (rare)

Micro images
=========================================================================

Epiphrenic diverticulum

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

Zenker's diverticula




Non-neoplastic disorders - Enteryx polymer

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Fistula (acquired)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross / clinical images
=========================================================================

Aortic arch aneurysm that perforated in esophagus

Aortoesophageal fistula




Non-neoplastic disorders - Glycogenic acanthosis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 3 July 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Numerous white islands

Slightly elevated longitudinal plaque

White nodules


Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Large squamous cells with abundant cytoplasm

Thickened superficial squamous epithelium with enlarged squamous cells containing abundant pale to clear cytoplasm

Glycogen patch - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Glycogen patch undigested PAS stain - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Glycogen patch digested PAS stain - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Positive stains
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Hiatal hernia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 June 2013, last major update November 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Drawings
=========================================================================

Axial (sliding) hernia

Nonaxial (paraesophageal) hernia

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Axial (sliding) hernia / autopsy findings




Non-neoplastic disorders - Idiopathic muscular hypertrophy

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Kayexalate damage

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Crystals in colon




Non-neoplastic disorders - Lacerations (Mallory-Weiss syndrome)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Laceration at GE junction




Non-neoplastic disorders - Lichen planus

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Various skin images

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Lye stricture

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Stricture (cause unknown)

Micro images
=========================================================================

Stenosis of lumen and extensive fibrosis




Non-neoplastic disorders - Lymphoid hyperplasia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Secondary achalasia (pseudoachalasia)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Endoscopy

Intraoperative

Close up

Micro images
=========================================================================

Squamous cell carcinoma




Non-neoplastic disorders - Pseudodiverticulosis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Thickened esophageal wall due to expanded submucosa

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Two dilated ducts in superficial submucosa




Non-neoplastic disorders - Retention cysts

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Sarcoidosis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Distal and proximal oesophagus

Severe atrophy of circular muscle

Myenteric plexus

Interstitial cells of Cajal


Fibrosis of muscularis propria

Trichrome stain

Barrett's esophagus

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Figure 1

Figure 2


Fig 1: Collagen between degenerate muscle fiber (left) and necrotic muscle fiber (right)
Fig 2: Muscle fibers (M) separated by collagenous fibers with widened intermyofibrillar space

Differential diagnosis of muscularis propria fibrosis
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Ulcer

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Mid esophageal ulcer due to azithromycin

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Surface of healing ulcer

Large abnormal spindle cells

Granulation tissue overlying submucosal glands

Long prongs of undifferentiated cells

Negative stains
=========================================================================




Non-neoplastic disorders - Varices

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Linear, dark blue, submucosal dilated veins

Linear, dark blue, submucosal dilated veins

Partially thrombosed after sclerotherapy

Micro images
=========================================================================

Focal rupture

Inflamed varix

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

Ruptured varices

Differential diagnosis hematemesis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - General

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Adenoma (submucosal gland origin)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Amyloid tumor

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Blue nevus

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Gland duct adenoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Fibrovascular polyp

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Endoscopy images

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Giant tumor is mobilized through esophagotomy incision

Yellow tumor with smooth surface

Core is composed of fibrous and adipose tissue

Giant polyp causing asphyxiation

Various images


Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Adipocytes form lobules of different sizes

Myxoid area contains spindle cells and vessels

Core contains fibroadipose tissue

Figures 2-6

Various images (fig 8-10)

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Gangliocytic paraganglioma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Glomus tumor

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Sheets and strands of round glomus cells

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Granular cell tumor

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Tumor fills lamina propria

Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Hemangioma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Hyperplastic polyp

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Various images (pdf)




Benign tumors - Inflammatory fibroid polyp

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

9 cm soft slimy tumor

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Muscularis propria partly replaced by vascular tumor

Thick and thin walled blood vessels, fibroblasts, lymphocytes and eosinophils


Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Leiomyoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Endoscopic examination

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Bulging, white, whorled cut surface

Submucosal tumor

With squamous cell carcinoma


Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Cluster of seedling leiomyomas

Seedling leiomyoma of muscularis propria

Leiomyoma with overlying squamous epithelium

Mature, hypertrophied smooth muscle cells

Multiple seedling leiomyomas


Incidental leiomyoma

Leiomyoma of muscularis propria

Fascicular growth pattern

Squamous cell carcinoma and leiomyoma

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Groups of spindled cells with low cellularity

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Leiomyomatosis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Massively thickened distal esophagus

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Multiple seedling leiomyomas

Enlarged smooth muscle bundles


Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Lipoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Endoscopy image

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Mature adipose tissue

Floret cell

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Melanocytosis

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Melanocytosis

Melanoma

Melanoma: lentiginous and pagetoid spread

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Schwannoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Melanin pigment

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Melanosomes at various stages of maturation

Premelanosomes stages II to IV

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Squamous papilloma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Elaborate branching of lamina propria

Endophytic type

Spike form

Various images

MIB1

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Benign tumors - Verruciform xanthoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================




Premalignant lesions - Barrett's esophagus (BE)

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 3 July 2013, last major update April 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Topographic distribution

Patterns

Esophageal biopsy protocol


Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Laboratory
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Endoscopy: mucosal erythema of lower esophagus

Endoscopic appearance of hiatus hernia mimicking Barrett's esophagus

Normal and Barrett's

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Tongues of tan-orange mucosa

Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus #1

#2

#3

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================


Histology of Barrett's esophagus

Tongue of Barrett's mucosa

With mucosal erosion and bizarre stromal cells

Exuberant granulation tissue

Small island of squamous epithelium

Villous pattern seen in areas of erosion with regeneration


Barrett's: various images

Barrett's

Intestinalized epithelium

Dysplastic foveolar epithelium


Mucin stains of Barrett's mucosa

Gastroesophageal junction: H&E and Alcian Blue

Alcian Blue


Classic staining pattern: CK7 & CK20

Classic staining pattern: CK7 & CK20

Nonclassic staining pattern


H&E and CDX2+

Various stains #1

#2

#3



Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick:

Low grade dysplasia

Metaplasia, high grade dysplasia

Metaplastic

Metaplasia with dysplasia


Adenocarcinoma associated with Barrett's #1

#2

#3

#4



Positive stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Premalignant lesions - Barrett's related dysplasia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update April 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

High grade dysplasia

Dysplasia (grade unspecified)

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================


Low grade dysplasia:

Lower half of gland

Upper half of mucosa

Dysplasia in lower half of glands

Pronounced nuclear hyperchromasia

Variable nuclear hyperchromasia


Dysplasia of surface foveolar epithelium

Various images



High grade dysplasia:

Marked distortion of glandular architecture

Various images

Dysplastic epithelium replaces Barrett's mucosa

Cytologic atypia

Various images



Other:

Tubular adenoma

Various images

H&E and CDX2+

Reactive changes

Reactive images (click on links)



Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick:

Low grade dysplasia

Metaplasia, high grade dysplasia

Metaplastic

Metaplasia with dysplasia




Positive stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Premalignant lesions - Indefinite for dysplasia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Various images

Indefinite for dysplasia


Fig 1: Crowding of lower portions of glands with maturation towards surface, but some stratification and nuclear enlargement
Fig 2: Enlarged, hyperchromatic, spindled and stratified nuclei; also dystrophic goblet cells with nuclei displaced towards luminal surface of cell
Fig 3: Enlarged nuclei are pseudostratified and crowded in lower crypt, but nuclear changes are less pronounced towards surface




Premalignant lesions - Polypoid dysplasia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================




Premalignant lesions - Squamous dysplasia

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 July 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

See basal squamous dysplasia below

General
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Low grade dysplasia

In situ carcinoma with adjacent normal mucosa

Almost full thickness epithelial disorganization


Pagetoid high grade dysplasia

Suspicious but not diagnostic of invasive carcinoma

In situ carcinoma involving submucosal ducts

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================



Basal squamous dysplasia

General
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Small dysplastic basaloid cells

Low magnification

Medium magnification

High magnification

High grade dysplasia due to pleomorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei, although not full thickness




Carcinoma - General

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 18 June 2013, last major update June 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Risk factors
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Overall 5 year survival
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Adenocarcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Adenocarcinoma

Adenocarcinoma in lymphatics

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Adenocarcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 September 2013, last major update June 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

See subtypes below: arising in ectopic gastric mucosa, gastroesophageal junction, intramucosal carcinoma

Definition
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Adenocarcinoma in Barrett esophagus

Polypoid tumor

Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

In Barrett metaplasia - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Arising from Barrett epithelium:

Various images

Moderately differentiated

Metaplasia - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick



Other:

Adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma collision tumor

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

Adenocarcinoma

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Adenocarcinoma (site unspecified)

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================



Adenocarcinoma arising in ectopic gastric mucosa

Definition
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Cervical esophagus tumor

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Well differentiated adenocarcinoma

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================



Adenocarcinoma of gastroesophageal junction

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Various images

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Adenocarcinoma of GEJ

Signet ring - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================



Intramucosal carcinoma of esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Intramucosal carcinoma

Various images

Suggestive of intramucosal carcinoma

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Adenoid cystic carcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 September 2013, last major update August 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Adenoid cystic carcinoma[title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma


Carcinoma - Adenosquamous

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 12 September 2013, last major update September 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: adenosquamous carcinoma [title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Adenosquamous carcinoma

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 25 September 2013, last major update September 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma [title]

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Small dark tumor cells

Peripheral basal-type cells

Focus of squamous differentiation

Strands of tumor cells touch epithelium


Composed of solid nests and strands of basaloid cells

Comedo-type necrosis and focal areas of squamous differentiation

AE1, AE3, and patchy S100

H&E and bcl2

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy descriptions
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics descriptions
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumor

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 31 July 2013, last major update July 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Grading
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

GI carcinoid

Small bowel carcinoid

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Carcinoid tumor

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Neurosecretory granules

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Choriocarcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 30 September 2013, last major update September 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Choriocarcinoma esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Laboratory
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 19 October 2013, last major update October 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Neuroendocrine carcinoma esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Collision tumor

Rosette formation

Synaptophysin, CD57

In muscularis - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy descriptions
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Desmosomal intercellular junctions

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 30 October 2013, last major update October 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Lymphoepithelioma-like esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Elevated tumor

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Located under squamous epithelium

Various immunostains

EBV associated molecules

Lymphocytic markers

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Metastases

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 24 November 2013, last major update November 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Metastases [title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Perforation at gastroesophageal junction

Mucosa appears normal at stricture

Thickening of esophageal wall

Thickening of fourth layer around esophagus

Fig 1: 5 cm stricture

Fig 2: severe stricture with normal esophageal mucosa

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Resected specimen

Micro images
=========================================================================

Breast metastasis

Breast: adenocarcinoma beneath the mucosa

Breast: lobular carcinoma (ER+)

Fig 4: breast cancer

Fig 3: ovarian tumor

Fig 5: lung

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Mucoepidermoid

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 December 2013, last major update December 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Mucoepidermoid [title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 31 July 2013, last major update July 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Grading
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Carcinoid

Small cell carcinoma of esophagus

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma

Large cell: rosette formation

In muscularis - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Carcinoid tumor

Small cell carcinoma

Contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Neurosecretory granules

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Paget disease

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 31 December 2013, last major update December 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: esophagus Paget disease

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 January 2014, last major update January 2014
Copyright: (c) 2003-2014, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma [title]

General
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

12 cm fungating ulcerated tumor

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Multinucleated tumor giant cells

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Neurosecretory granules

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Spindle cell (squamous) carcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 6 February 2014, last major update January 2014
Copyright: (c) 2003-2014, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Spindle cell (squamous) carcinoma esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Rhabdomyo-sarcomatous differentiation - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

With rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation - contributed by Dr. Mark R. Wick

Pseudosarcomatous squamous cell carcinoma

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Superficial squamous cell carcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 22 March 2014, last major update March 2014
Copyright: (c) 2003-2014, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Superficial squamous cell carcinoma [title]

General
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Depth of invasion

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites, Pathophysiology and Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Two smooth round defects

Polypoid lesion with a partially irregular surface

Esophageal neoplasm

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Multiple polypoid tumors

Small ulcer covered by blood clot

Plaque-like tumor is irregular, slightly elevated

Plaque with small polyp

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Tumor invades into middle of submucosa

With leiomyomas

H&E

With leiomyoma

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Carcinoma - Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 22 March 2014, last major update March 2014
Copyright: (c) 2003-2014, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Verrucous squamous cell carcinoma [title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology / Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Large polypoid mass

Mass penetrating the muscularis propria

Thickened esophagus

Image taken at level of CT scan

Level of carina

Barium radiograph

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Large plaque of carcinoma

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Squamous spikes covered by keratin

Hyperplastic squamous epithelium

Squamous epithelium with parakeratosis and mild cytologic atypia

Esophageal mucosa

Open biopsy of mediastinum

Giant cell foreign body reaction

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 19 August 2013, last major update August 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Ewing's sarcoma

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Site unspecified

Various images

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images (not esophagus)
=========================================================================

Pleomorphic round cells

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Ewing sarcoma of bone

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics images
=========================================================================

EWSR1 gene

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 3 September 2013, last major update August 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: GIST esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Radiology images
=========================================================================

40 year old man with dysphagia

Enhancing chest CT

CT scan shows well circumscribed tumor

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Risk category Tumor size Mitotic rate/50HPF
Low < 5 cm < 5
Intermediate < 5 cm 6-10
Intermediate 5-10 cm < 5
High > 5 cm > 5
High > 10 cm Any mitotic rate
High Any size > 10

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Endoscopic images

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

19 cm tumor with cystic degeneration and necrosis

Multinodular, well circumscribed mass in posterior mediastinum

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Dense cellularity, mixture of epithelioid and spindled areas

Intramural nodule and fascicular arrangement of spindle cells


H&E

Spindle cell proliferation

Moderate atypia, occasional mitotic figures

KIT


KIT/CD117

CD117 and desmin

CD117, CD34, SMA, S100

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Spindle cells with high cellularity

Epithelioid cells with round nuclei

Clusters of atypical epithelioid and spindle cells

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Ultrastructural demonstration of cytoplasmic vesicles in high risk GIST

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Hemangiopericytoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 8 September 2013, last major update September 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Hemangiopericytoma[title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Radiology description
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Solitary fibrous tumor of soft tissue (not esophagus)

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images (not esophagus)
=========================================================================

Various images

Reticulin stain

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

HPC: soft tissue

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Figures 1-3

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Kaposi sarcoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 25 September 2013, last major update September 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Kaposi sarcoma [title]

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathogenesis
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Laboratory
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Mainly palliative, based on extent of disease:

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Raised, red-purple nodules

Dark red mucosal patch

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Various images

Small bowel

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Leiomyosarcoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 6 October 2013, last major update October 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Leiomyosarcoma esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Dilated thoracic esophagus

Lower esophageal wall thickening

Round, smooth mass in upper esophagus

Intraluminal polypoid lesion


Large, homogeneously enhancing soft tissue mass

Intense segmental fluorodeoxyglucose uptake

Intraluminal polypoid mass

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Resected specimen

Nodular tumor

Sarcoma

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Leiomyosarcoma


Moderately pleomorphic, mitotically active nuclei

Pleomorphic spindle cells

Arising in remnant esophagus

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Case from Papanicolaou Society

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Liposarcoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 22 October 2013, last major update October 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Liposarcoma of esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Huge mass with stalk

Endoscopic submucosal dissection

Esophageal obturation

Distal transmural liposarcomas

Normal mucosa and space occupying mass


Tumor protruding into lumen

Tumor mass occupying dilated esophaugs

Low density discrete mass herniating

Lobulated liposarcoma

Long tumor mass filling thoracic esophagus


Narrowing of lumen

Well circumscribed, heterogeneous mass

Liposarcoma with rhabdomyomatous

Luminal distension in upper esophagus

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Yellow, multi-
lobulated mass
divided by fibrous
septa

Large pedunculated tumor mass

Liposarcoma

Pink-tan tissue fragments


Distal esophagus with transected tumor

Liposarcoma

Liposarcoma with rhabdomyomatous differentiation

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics images
=========================================================================

CPM gene amplification

MDM2 gene amplification

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Lymphoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 15 November 2013, last major update November 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: lymphoma [title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Risk factors
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Laboratory
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Radiologic images
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images (endoscopy)
=========================================================================

Multiple solid, firm nodular lesions

Ulcerated tumor

Large, rounded mass

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Ulcerated burgeoning masses

Solid, firm nodular lesions

Multiple lymphomatous polyposis

MALT: esophagus & proximal stomach are unremarkable

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

Mantle cell lymphoma

Mantle cell lymphoma

Mycosis fungoides



MALT lymphoma

Dense submucosal lymphocytic infiltrate

Vaguely nodular growth pattern

Monocytoid appearance

Germinal centers


CD20+

CD20+

BCL6+ in germinal centers

BCL6+


CD10

Ki-67

Kappa / Lambda

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

DLBCL

Burkitt lymphoma

MALT lymphoma

Peripheral smear description
=========================================================================

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Flow cytometry description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 12 November 2013, last major update November 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Esophagus[title] Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Site unspecified-large peripheral nerve trunks

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images-not esophagus
=========================================================================

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Spindle to oval shaped cells

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics images
=========================================================================

Low grade MPNST: EGFR amplification and homozygous CDKN2A deletions

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Melanoma

Reviewer: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 21 April 2014, last major update April 2014
Copyright: (c) 2003-2014, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Melanoma [title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Esophageal melanoma

4 cm mass protruding into the lower esophagus

Mass lesion - posterior wall of the lower esophagus

Three pigmented satellite polypoid lesions

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Ulcerated, black, sessile polypoid tumor

Ulcerated and hemorrhagic tumor

Hyperpigmented remnants

Black ulcerated nodules

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Large, sessile, polypoid melanoma

Tumor cells are epithelioid

Atypical junctional melanocytic hyperplasia

Focally pigmented tumor

In situ (left) and invasive (right) components

Lentiginous proliferation of atypical melanocytes

Nests of atypical melanocytes

Esophageal melanoma, H&E

H&E

Metastatic melanoma, H&E

Pigmented cellular tumor, H&E

H&E, HMB45

HMB45

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Osteosarcoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 29 November 2013, last major update November 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: Osteosarcoma [title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Radiologic images
=========================================================================

Lobulated calcified esophageal mass at T4

Ossified mass in epigastrium

Mass compressing stomach inferiorly

Mass encircles aorta

Ossification in left hemithorax

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Large intraluminal polypoid tumor

Severe stricture

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images (not Esophagus)
=========================================================================

Giant osteoblast cells

Chondroblastic osteosarcoma

Epithelioid osteosarcoma

Osteoblastic osteosarcoma


Small cell osteosarcoma

Telangiectatic osteosarcoma

Keratin negative

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

Osteosarcoma in a dog

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy images
=========================================================================

Site unspecified

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Other malignancies - Sarcoma - general

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 15 December 2013, last major update December 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
PubMed Search: sarcoma [title] esophagus

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Radiologic images
=========================================================================

Dilated thoracic esophagus

Gastrographin esophagography

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

GIST

Kaposi sarcoma

Leiomyosarcoma

Liposarcoma

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

GIST

Sarcoma

Liposarcoma

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images (not necessarily Esophagus)
=========================================================================

Angiosarcoma

Ewing sarcoma

GIST

Hemangioperi-
cytoma

Kaposi sarcoma

Leiomyosarcoma


Liposarcoma, well differentiated

MPNST

Osteosarcoma

Sarcoma, not otherwise specified

Synovial sarcoma

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Flow cytometry description
=========================================================================

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics images
=========================================================================

Well-differentiated liposarcoma

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Miscellaneous - Staging of esophageal carcinoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 15 December 2013, last major update December 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Rules for classification
=========================================================================

Definitions of TNM
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Stages of throat cancer

Various stages

Regional lymph nodes (N)
=========================================================================

Distant Metastasis (M)
=========================================================================

Grading
=========================================================================

Location
=========================================================================

Anatomic Stage / Prognostic Groups
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Miscellaneous - Grossing esophagectomy specimens

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 8 April 2014, last major update December 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Relevant clinical history for esophageal specimens
=========================================================================

Biopsies
=========================================================================

Esophagectomies
=========================================================================

Gross differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

Additional references
=========================================================================




Miscellaneous - Features to report for esophageal carcinoma

Reviewer: Feriyl Bhaijee, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Israh Akhtar, M.D.
Revised: 18 December 2013, last major update December 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Biopsy
=========================================================================

Endoscopic resection, Esophagectomy, or Esophagogastrectomy
=========================================================================

Optional features to report
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Esophageal cancer staging

Additional references
=========================================================================

End of Esophagus > Superpage


Advertisement


This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patient's clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician.

All information on this website is protected by copyright of PathologyOutlines.com, Inc. Information from third parties may also be protected by copyright. Please contact us at copyrightPathOut@gmail.com with any questions (click here for other contact information).