Benign or non-neoplastic conditions
Reviewer: Nicole Riddle, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Editor: Jamie Shutter, M.D.
Revised: 25 July 2013, last major update July 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
- Partial resection or closing of a segment of tube for the purpose of sterilization.
- Methods (Wikipedia):
- Adiana tubal ligation: two small silicone pieces are placed in tube and heated, causing scar formation and blocking canal
- Coagulation-bipolar: use of bipolar electrical current to cauterize tube
- Coagulation-monopolar: use of monopolar electrical current to cauterize tube, allows radiating current to further damage tube as current spreads from coagulation site
- Essure tubal ligation: two small metal and fiber coils are placed in tube causing scar tissue, blocking off canal
- Fimbriectomy: eliminates ovary's ability to capture and transfer eggs to uterus
- Irving procedure: place 2 sutures around fallopian tube and remove tubal segment between; then ends of fallopian tubes are connected to uterus and connective tissue
- Pomeroy tubal ligation: loop of tube is tied with suture; then loop is cut and ends are cauterized
- Tubal (Hulka) clip: permanent clip applied to tube
- Tubal ring: doubling over of tubes and application of a silastic band
- No/weak evidence for a "tubal ligation syndrome" (Fertil Steril 1998;69:179, BMC Womens Health 2005;5:5)
- ~99% effective in first year; effectiveness reduced slightly in following years due to reformation or reconnection; when pregnancy occurs, 15-20% are ectopic and ~ 85% occur >1 year after procedure
- Recanalization or tuboperitoneal fistulas may allow openings large enough for passage of sperm but too small for ovum, resulting in fertilization and implantation in distal tubal segment
- Gross findings depend on procedure; typically ends of tube are blunted without an opening to the canal; clips or sutures may be present
- Dilation of proximal tube, attenuation of plica with pseudopolyp formation and chronic inflammation
- Plical thickening in distal tube, scar tissue
- Occasionally endometriosis
End of Fallopian tubes > Benign or non-neoplastic conditions > Post-tubal ligation
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