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Joints
Superpage

Revised: 26 July 2013, last major update July 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


General
Anatomy

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 April 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Diagrams
=========================================================================
Structure of joint synarthrosis and symphysis
Shoulder joint
Micro images
=========================================================================
Synovial joints - distal phalanx (interphalangeal joint) - H&E
Additional references
=========================================================================



General
Histology

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 April 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
Normal synovium
Hyaline cartilage
Joint
Tendon



Non-neoplastic disease
Baker's cyst

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 April 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Diagrams
=========================================================================
Popliteal Cyst
Case reports
=========================================================================
Treatment
=========================================================================
Clinical images
=========================================================================
Baker's cysts
Left popliteal fossa
Micro description
=========================================================================



Non-neoplastic disease
Bursitis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 April 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Clinical features
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================
Treatment
=========================================================================
Clinical images
=========================================================================
Elbow
Knee
Foot
Gross description
=========================================================================
Micro description
=========================================================================
Videos
=========================================================================



Elbow - Chronic fibrinous bursitis



Non-neoplastic disease
Carpal tunnel syndrome

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 April 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Clinical features
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================
Treatment
=========================================================================
Clinical images
=========================================================================
Untreated
Lesion with incision marking
Giant lipoma stretching median nerve
2 years follow up
Gross description
=========================================================================
Gross images
=========================================================================
Resected giant lipoma
Micro description
=========================================================================



Non-neoplastic disease
Cystic meniscus

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 April 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================
Gross / clinical images
=========================================================================
Resected cyst
Arthroscopic finding
External aspect of cyst
Cyst resection
Micro description
=========================================================================



Non-neoplastic disease
Disc material

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 April 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================

Protrusion:
Prolapse:
Extrusion:
Sequestration:
Micro description
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
Intervertebral disc
Disc degeneration



Non-neoplastic disease
Ganglion

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 April 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================
Clinical images
=========================================================================
Gross description
=========================================================================
Micro description
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
Ganglion cyst
Cystic space lined by histiocytes and granulation tissue with moderate acute and chronic inflammation of cyst wall



Non-neoplastic disease
Implant related changes

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 April 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Xray images
=========================================================================
Various images - due to polyethylene

Clinical images
=========================================================================
Metallosis surrounding implant and cervical neck

Micro images
=========================================================================
Prosthetic synovitis: hyperplastic synovial membrane adjacent to prosthesis
Methylmethacralate debris (linear webs) surrounded by giant cells
Polyethylene flakes (shiny linear material) surrounded by foreign body giant cell reaction (polarized microscopy)



Non-neoplastic disease
Meniscal tears

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 April 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Micro description
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
Meniscus tear



Non-neoplastic disease
Morton neuroma

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 19 April 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Diagrams
=========================================================================
Clinical images
=========================================================================
Neuroma removed
Gross description
=========================================================================
Micro description
=========================================================================
Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================



Non-neoplastic disease
Osteochondritis dissecans

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 19 April 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Sites
=========================================================================
Radiology
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================
Treatment
=========================================================================
Gross description
=========================================================================
Gross images
=========================================================================
Head of femur
Osteochondritis of left humeral head
with secondary deformation of bone,
eighth to ninth century from Iona
Micro description
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
Pathological specimen of Danish sow



Non-neoplastic disease
Sarcoidosis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 19 April 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
C: sarcoidosis



Non-neoplastic disease
Spondylosis deformans

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 19 April 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================



Non-neoplastic disease
Synovial cyst

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 April 2013, last major update February 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Drawings
=========================================================================
Baker's cyst
Micro description
=========================================================================


Spinal synovial cyst
General
=========================================================================
Radiologic images
=========================================================================
Cystic mass in L2-L3 facet joint
Case reports
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Clinical images
=========================================================================
Extradural cystic lesion
Micro images
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Hemorrhagic synovial cyst
Thin fibrous wall


Cutaneous metaplastic synovial cyst
General
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================
Treatment
=========================================================================
Clinical images
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Solitary, well-demarcated 3 cm mass
Cystic lesion filled with gelatinous material
Micro description
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
Numerous villous-like structures
Villous structures lined by membrane of varying cellularity
Vimentin+ CD34- CD68-



Arthritis
Arthritis-general

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 April 2013, last major update March 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Drawings
=========================================================================
Carpometacarpal joint
Etiology
=========================================================================

Biopsy: Clinical images
=========================================================================
"Fibrillation"
Loose body
Gross description
=========================================================================
Gross images
=========================================================================
"Osteophytes"
Micro description
=========================================================================
Injury:
Repair:
Micro images
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Sheep with cylindrical metal implant
Pentachrome-stained knee joint of rabbit



Infectious arthritis
General

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 April 2013, last major update March 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================



Infectious arthritis
Lyme arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 April 2013, last major update March 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Clinical images
=========================================================================
Erythema migrans skin lesion
Lyme arthritis of right knee
Micro description
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
Borrelia burgdorferi
Borrelia spirochetes identified on silver stain
Joint capsule, elbow
Chronic lyme disease - perineuritis
Positive stains
=========================================================================
Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================



Infectious arthritis
Spondylodiskitis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 April 2013, last major update March 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Diagnosis
=========================================================================
MRI images
=========================================================================
Destruction of vertebral bodies and disk tissue
Case reports
=========================================================================
Gross images
=========================================================================
Intervertebral disc (top center) destroyed by vertebral abscess
Spinal cord compressed by abscess
Micro description
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================

Primary Aspergillus spondylodiscitis in liver transplant recipient
G/H: inflammatory cells and bacteria
C. tropicalis

Additional references
=========================================================================



Infectious arthritis
Suppurative arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 April 2013, last major update March 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Sites
=========================================================================
Diagnosis
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================
Treatment
=========================================================================
Clinical images
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Ankle joint
Micro description
=========================================================================
Micro images
=========================================================================
Pyogenic osteomyelitis and suppurative arthritis leading to joint destruction



Infectious arthritis
Tuberculous arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 April 2013, last major update March 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================
Radiology
=========================================================================
Case reports
=========================================================================
Clinical images
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Arthroscopic view of elbow joint
Micro description
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Micro images
=========================================================================
1B: typical caseating tuberculous granuloma
Synovial tissue
Synovial biopsy showing granuloma



Infectious arthritis
Viral arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 20 April 2013, last major update March 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================



Non-infective arthritis
Ankylosing spondyloarthritis (AS)

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 24 April 2013, last major update April 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Ankylosing spondylitis

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Anterior flexion




Non-infective arthritis
Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 24 April 2013, last major update April 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Pathogenesis

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Laboratory
=========================================================================

Radiology images
=========================================================================

Pyrophosphate arthropathy

Meniscal chondrocalcinosis

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

H&E (A-C), Shiddam staining (figure 2)


High magnification

Compensated polarised light microscopy

H&E, polarized light

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Non-infective arthritis
Degenerative joint disease

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 24 April 2013, last major update April 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
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Radiology
=========================================================================

Radiology images
=========================================================================

Euplastic bilateral arthrosis with large osteophytes

Case reports
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Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Swelling around distal interphalangeal joints

Charcot joints

Joint mice-loose body

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Bone eburnation

Femoral head

Advanced osteoarthritis of hip

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Reactive changes with increased cellularity and multilayering of synovial cells

Areas of uninjured bone tissue (A), necrotic bone tissue (B) and cartilage (C)

Synovial area with granulation tissue and chronic inflammation


Microscopic changes

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

Degenerative joint disease

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================




Non-infective arthritis
Enteropathic arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 24 April 2013, last major update April 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Prognostic factors
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Synovial tissue of knee




Non-infective arthritis
Gout and gouty arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Milky effusion associated with gout

Various images

Various images

Fingers

Chalky white appeareance

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

White deposits

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

  1. Xray
  2. Diff-Quick
  3. Pap smear
  4. Polarized light
  5. H&E

Uric acid crystals

Needle shaped monosodium crystals

Sodium urate crystals - polarized light

Typical granuloma

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Non-infective arthritis
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 May 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Diagrams
=========================================================================

Cytokine signaling pathways

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Flesh-colored, subcutaneous nodules

Swelling and flexion contracture

Polyarticular disease

Systemic onset disease

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Degenerated fibrin with surrounding palisading histiocytes

Destruction of articular cartilage of femoral head

Proliferative and exudative synovitis

Typical pannus formation




Non-infective arthritis
Psoriatric arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 May 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Psoriasis rash

Psoriatic arthritis of hands

Swollen and erythematous third digit

Swollen joints

Micro description
=========================================================================




Non-infective arthritis
Reiter's syndrome

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Etiology
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Onychodystrophy

Swollen "sausage" toe / inflamed ankle

Radiograph: periosteal reaction at plantar fascia insertion




Non-infective arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Pathogenesis

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Diagnosis
=========================================================================

Laboratory
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Yellowish discharge of altered synovial fluid

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Swollen and erythematous finger

Knee joint

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Chronic inflammation, plasma cells, lymphocytes

Lymphoid follicles


Amorphous, pink, necrotic material

Pannus

Rheumatoid nodule

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

Rheumatoid nodule

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics images
=========================================================================

HLA-DR4 molecule




Non-infective arthritis
Scleroderma

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================




Non-infective arthritis
Systemic lupus erythematosus

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Correctable swan-neck deformities and ulnar deviation

Readily correctable swan-neck deformities and subluxation of right fifth MCP


Metacarpal heads-no cartilage damage seen

Non-correctable deformities of PIP joints

Mild ulnar deviation, especially on right

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Synovial membrane




Joint tumors
General

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================




Joint tumors
Fibroma of tendon sheath

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Multilobular mass

3.52cm mass

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

H&E

Various images




Joint tumors
Fibrous histiocytoma of tendon sheath

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 4 July 2013, last major update June 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross / clinical images
=========================================================================

Foot

Palmar aspect of middle phalanx of index finger

Firm, nodular, nontender thumb mass

Excised giant cell tumor

Dome-shaped nodule

Well-demarcated yellowish lobulated tumor

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

2A: H&E with multinucleated giant cells and mononuclear cells; B: mononuclear cells are HAM56+; C: giant cells and some mononuclear cells are TRAP+; 3: differentiation sequence of giant cell tumor

Giant cell

Low power and high power

Circumscribed lobulated nodule

Histiocytes with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm


Low power view of thumb tumor

High power view of cellular zone

High power view of hypocellular zone

CD68 immunostaining of cellular zone

Ki-67 immunostaining of peripheral zone

CD45 immunostaining of peripheral zone

Electron microscopy description
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================



Malignant variant of fibrous histiocytoma of tendon sheath

General
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Radiological, histologic, and FISH/ISH findings in malignant tumors




Joint tumors
Juxta-articular myxoma

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update May 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Arthroscopic image of lesion within suprapatellar pouch

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Glassy appearance

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Myxoid stroma and spindle cells

Knee joint

Bland myxoid neoplasm without
mesenchymal atypia or hypercellularity




Joint tumors
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update June 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Knee arthroscopy

Stained synovium

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Brownish synovium

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Pseudoglandular or cleft-like spaces

Proliferation of polygonal cells

Multinucleated giant cells

Hemosiderin-laden macrophages

Hemosiderin-laden and lipid-laden macrophages

Lipid-laden macrophages


Low power

Medium power

Malignant cases

Hemosiderin deposits, foamy histiocytes and giant cells

Extensive histiocytic proliferation

Virtual slides
=========================================================================

48 year old woman with synovial polyp

54 year old man with tissue from knee joint

Cytology description
=========================================================================

Cytology images
=========================================================================

H&E

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Negative stains
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics description
=========================================================================

Molecular / cytogenetics images
=========================================================================

FISH: trisomy 5 and 7

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Joint tumors
Synovial chondromatosis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update June 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Loose bodies in synovial chondromatosis

Multiple loose osteocartilaginous fragments

Smooth white nodule

Showing extent of disease

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Metaplastic cartilage in synovium

Clusters of chondrocytes

Resembles Grade 1 chondrosarcoma

Nodule of cartilage

Lobular structure

Medium power


Loose bodies

Subsynovial cartilaginous nodule

Moderate atypia of chondrocytes

Osteochondral loose body

Cartilaginous tissue enclosed by synovial tissue

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================



Secondary disease

General
=========================================================================




Joint tumors
Synovial chondrosarcoma

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update June 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Various images of extracapsular hip specimen after fixation and bisection


Chondromatosis with chondrosarcoma

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Tumor tissue permeating cortical bone and filling marrow spaces




Joint tumors
Synovial giant cell tumor

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 19 July 2013, last major update July 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Pathophysiology
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Histiocytes, foam cells, and multinucleated giant cells

Histiocyte-like tumor cells, lymphocytes,
hemosiderin-laden macrophages and
osteoclast-like giant cells

Positive stains
=========================================================================

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Joint tumors
Synovial hemangioma

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update June 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Xray images
=========================================================================

MRI of knee of 32 year old man

Case reports
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Gross images
=========================================================================

Various images

Heavily pigmented soft tissue mass

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3


Fig 1: Well-circumscribed lesion composed of a fibrotic stroma and thin walled capillary vessels, with associated thrombi formation. (H&E 20X).
Fig 2: A closer view of the lesion showing the presence of organized thrombi in the lumen of some vessels and a flat layer of benign endothelial cells (H&E 100X).
Fig 3: CD-31 special stain demonstrating strong reactivity of the lining endothelium (100X).

Hip

Hyperplastic synovium

Dilated vascular spaces

Cavernous blood vessels

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================




Joint tumors
Synovial lipomatosis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 June 2013, last major update June 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Villi-like structures

Papillary architecture

Mature adipocytes

Focal hyperplasia

Few mature lipocytes




Joint tumors
Tenosynovial chondromatosis

Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 25 July 2013, last major update July 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
=========================================================================

Terminology
=========================================================================

Epidemiology
=========================================================================

Sites
=========================================================================

Clinical features
=========================================================================

Radiology
=========================================================================

Radiology images
=========================================================================

Multiple calcifying nodules

Case reports
=========================================================================

Treatment
=========================================================================

Clinical images
=========================================================================

Dorsal first web space

Multiple rice bodies within synovial sheath

Gross description
=========================================================================

Micro description
=========================================================================

Micro images
=========================================================================

Nodule surrounded by tenosynovial membrane

Differential diagnosis
=========================================================================

End of Joints > Superpage


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