Joints
Joint tumors
Synovial giant cell tumor

Author: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 5 September 2017, last major update July 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Joint tumors synovial giant cell tumor "loattrfree full text"[sb]

Cite this page: Shankar, V. Synovial giant cell tumor. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/jointssynovialGCT.html. Accessed November 24th, 2017.
Definition / general
  • Benign neoplasm characterized by proliferating histiocytes containing lipid and hemosiderin intermingled with multinuclear giant cells
Terminology
  • Synovial type giant cell tumor, pigmented villonodular synovitis
Epidemiology
  • Usually adults over 30 years old
Sites
  • Frequently tendon sheaths in hand, rarely axial skeleton (thoracic vertebrae, lumbar or cervical spine)
Pathophysiology
Clinical features
  • Mechanical derangement of joint; with knee joint, meniscal symptoms and locking are often present
  • May have joint effusion without previous trauma
  • Vertebral involvement presents with pain localized to spinal region or radicular pain
Case reports
Treatment
  • Complete surgical resection
Gross description
  • 1 - 6 cm, circumscribed, solid or diffuse
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Polyhedral stromal cells with numerous multinucleated giant cells
  • Stroma can be hyalinized
  • Siderophages, xanthoma cells, lymphocytes and some spindled fibroblast-like cells
  • Rarely classic villiform architecture of pigmented villonodular synovitis is noted
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:

Histiocytes, foam cells and multinucleated giant cells

Histiocyte-like tumor cells,
lymphocytes, hemosiderin laden
macrophages and osteoclast-like
giant cells

Positive stains
Differential diagnosis
  • Other primary bone lesions such as aneurysmal bone cyst, osteoblastoma and osteoclastoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of lesion involving posterior vertebral elements