Reviewers: Nikhil Sangle, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 11 April 2012, last major update April 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Age related changes occur; are affected by hypertension and heart failure (Kidney Int 1997;51:1196)
● Causes increased reabsorption of NaCl to increase blood volume
Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin):
● Stimulates water reabsorption by stimulating insertion of "water channels" or aquaporins into the membranes of kidney tubules
● These channels transport solute-free water through tubular cells and back into blood, leading to a decrease in plasma osmolarity and an increased osmolarity of urine
● In diabetes insipidus (without ADH), kidney tubules are virtually impermeable to water, which flows out as urine (up to 10 liters of dilute urine / day)
● Secreted in response to low serum pO2, promotes red blood cell production
● Cause increase in glomerular filtration rate after nephron destruction
● Produced by juxtaglomerular apparatus in response to hypotension, converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II in the lung by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
● Angiotensin II increases aldosterone production and promotes vasoconstriction
End of Kidney non-tumor > Renal hormones
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