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Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts-nontumor

Embryology


Reviewers: Komal Arora, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 27 June 2012, last major update April 2012
Copyright: (c) 2004-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
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● Arises at embryonic junction (septum transversum): where ectoderm of amnion meets endoderm of yolk sac (externally) and where foregut meets midgut (internally); mesenchymal structure of transverse septum provides support so blood vessels and liver can form in underlying splanchnic mesoderm (University of New South Wales-Australia)
● Hepatic diverticulum buds from ventral foregut at end of third week, grows into primitive septum transversum
● Liver forms from endodermal cells of diverticulum, termed hepatoblasts and mesenchyme
● Blood supply primarily from umbilical vein; also portal vein and hepatic artery
● Placenta clears wastes in bile and absorbs nutrients, and umbilical vein blood bypasses liver via ductus venosus
● All elements of the biliary tree are recognizable by week 5, although bile duct system not complete until after birth; derived from endoderm (large ducts) and embryonic ductal plate (smaller intrahepatic ducts, Dig Surg 2010;27:87)
● Hematopoietic cells are present in embryonic/fetal liver but absent at term

Diagrams
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Embryonic hepatic bud formation


Development of hepatic diverticulum (5th week)

Micro images
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Transverse septum (septum transversum) arises at embryonic junctional site


Stage 13/14 embryo (day 42)


Stage 22 embryo (days 54-56)

Videos
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Development of foregut related to the peritoneum

End of Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts-nontumor > Embryology


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