Lung - nontumor
AIDS related pneumonia

Topic Completed: 1 August 2011

Revised: 29 January 2019, last major update August 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2018,, Inc.

PubMed search: pneumonia [title] AIDS related lungs

Elliot Weisenberg, M.D.
Page views in 2019: 292
Page views in 2020 to date: 167
Cite this page: Weisenberg E. AIDS related pneumonia. website. Accessed May 31st, 2020.
Clinical features
  • Lung disease is most common cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients
  • Diagnose infection or mimickers with bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy or open lung biopsy
  • Nonspecific features resemble DIP or lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia
  • Patients often have multiple infections
  • Lung biopsies in AIDS patients should routinely be stained for pneumocystis, fungi and mycobacteria
  • Characteristically cavitary lesions: Staphylococcus, fungi (Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010;54:269], Histoplasma, Blastomyces), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, other nontuberculous mycobacteria; Rhodococcus equi, Fusarium, Pseudallescheria
  • AIDS patients also have infections from CMV, Pneumocystis jeroveci (formerly Pneumocystis carinii), toxoplasma, microsporidia, herpesvirus types 1 and 2, adenovirus, Strep. pneumonia, H. influenza, Gram negative rods, Legionella pneumophilia, cryptosporidium, zygomycetes, herpes varicella zoster, Penicillium marneffei (patients from Southeast Asia) and bartonella
  • Rarely pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (J Med Case Reports 2011;5:46)
  • Noninfectious causes of pulmonary infiltrates: Kaposi sarcoma, drug reaction, primary lung cancer, non Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Multiple infections and infections with concurrent malignancy are common in AIDS patients
Microscopic (histologic) images

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CMV and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

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