Lung - nontumor
Cystic disease / congenital anomalies
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Author: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 21 February 2017, last major update August 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed search: bronchopulmonary dysplasia [title] lung

Cite this page: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/lungnontumorBPD.html. Accessed February 23rd, 2017.
Definition / General
  • Complication of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
  • Infants almost always < 1200 gram birth weight and < 30 weeks gestation
  • Definition: requirement for supplemental oxygen for longer than 28 days of age, and a postmenstrual age of at least 36 weeks (eMedicine)
Etiology
  • Due to decreased alveolar septation and capillary derangement, secondary to arrested septation of lungs, due to therapy in the saccular stage of lung development
  • Free radicals generated by oxygen therapy and inflammatory cytokines play a role in pathogenesis
Clinical Features
  • Incidence has fallen with use of surfactant therapy in premature infants for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (Semin Perinatol 2006;30:171)
  • Respiratory distress continues for months
  • Patients have limited pulmonary reserve, develop repeated infections, often have pulmonary hypertension and develop cor pulmonale
Micro Description
  • Bronchiolar and interstitial fibrosis, compensatory emphysema of less damaged acini
  • Inadequate alveolar development causes fewer but larger alveoli
Micro Images

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Severe fibrosis

Large alveoli

Additional References