Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Reviewers: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 28 August 2011, last major update August 2011
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● Also called chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) (Wikipedia)
● Two major forms are chronic bronchitis (chronic large airway disease) and emphysema; they may co-exist
● Major cause of bed defining disability and death in US
● Major symptom is dyspnea (shortness of breath)
● Usually due to cigarette smoking
● Sites of disease: bronchi-chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis and asthma; bronchioles-bronchiolitis; acini-emphysema
● Obstructive airway disease: increase in resistance to airflow due to obstruction at any level; includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, asthma, tumor, foreign body; have reduced maximal airflow rates (FEV1); although isolated chronic bronchitis does not show reduced FEV1, coexisting emphysema or small airway disease is usually present
● Restrictive airway disease: reduced expansion of lung parenchyma with decrease in total lung capacity; normal FEV1; due to chest wall disorders (polio, obesity, pleural disease, kyphoscoliosis) and interstitial/infiltrative diseases (ARDS, dust diseases, interstitial fibrosis)
End of Lung-nontumor > Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) > COPD-General
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