Lung - nontumor
General
Normal anatomy

Author: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 22 March 2017, last major update August 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed search: normal anatomy [title] pulmonary

Cite this page: Normal anatomy. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/lungnontumoranatomy.html. Accessed April 26th, 2017.
Definition / General
  • Main function of lungs is gas exchange
  • Trachea divides into right and left mainstem bronchi
  • Right lung has 3 lobes (upper, middle and lower); left lung has 2 lobes (upper and lower) lobes; lingual is part of left upper lobe and is somewhat analogous to right middle lobe
  • Right bronchus is more vertical and in line with trachea than left; thus aspirated material tends to enter right lung
  • Each main bronchus divides into lobar bronchi, then into segmental bronchi
  • Lobar bronchi are usually called secondary bronchi and segmental bronchi are called tertiary bronchi, except in Japan, where they are called first order and second order, respectively
  • Bronchial walls contain cartilage and submucosal glands
  • Bronchioles are generally < 3 mm in diameter and lack cartilage and submucosal glands in their walls; their diameter varies
  • Bronchioles are generally divided into nonrespiratory bronchioles (all bronchioles proximal to respiratory bronchioles, including terminal bronchioles that are proximal to respiratory bronchioles) and respiratory bronchioles (airways with alveoli budding from their walls)
  • Alveoli are "dead ends" of airways; their walls are composed only of alveoli, where gas exchange takes place
  • Lung has double arterial supply - pulmonary and bronchial arteries that accompany airways; in general, diameter of airway is similar to that of accompanying pulmonary artery
  • Lungs are surrounded by visceral pleural membrane; inner chest cavity is lined by parietal pleural membrane; these membranes define pleural space, which normally has minimal volume
  • Regional lymph nodes: paratracheal, pre- and retrotracheal, aortic, subcarinal, periesophageal, inferior pulmonary ligament, hilar, peribronchial and intrapulmonary
Diagrams / Tables

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Gross Images

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