Lung nontumor
Other nonneoplastic disease
Vaping associated acute lung injury


Topic Completed: 9 December 2019

Minor changes: 27 May 2020

Copyright: 2019, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Vaping lung injury

Matthew J. Cecchini, M.D., Ph.D.
Eunhee S. Yi, M.D.
Page views in 2019: 251
Page views in 2020 to date: 498
Cite this page: Cecchini MJ, Boland JM, Larsen BT, Yi ES. Vaping associated acute lung injury. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/lungnontumorvaping.html. Accessed June 7th, 2020.
Definition / general
  • Inhalational acute lung injury secondary to the use of e-cigarettes or other vaping devices which aerosolize fluid that is subsequently inhaled by the user
Essential features
  • Spectrum of acute lung injury from organizing pneumonia to diffuse alveolar damage
  • Airway centered foamy macrophages and pneumocytes
  • Bronchiolitis often also present
  • Intra-alveolar fibrin in some cases
Terminology
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has divided cases of vaping associated lung injury into confirmed and probable based upon the following criteria (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:787):

    Confirmed Probable
    Use of an e-cigarette (vaping) or dabbing Within 90 days before symptom onset
    Imaging Pulmonary infiltrate, such as opacities on plain film chest radiograph or ground glass opacities on chest computed tomography
    Infectious workup Absence of pulmonary infection on initial workup Infection identified via culture or polymerase chain reaction but clinical team believes this is not the sole cause of the underlying respiratory disease process or minimum criteria to rule out pulmonary infection not met (testing not performed) and clinical team believes this is not the sole cause of the underlying respiratory disease process
    Alternative diagnosis No evidence in medical record of alternative plausible diagnoses (e.g. cardiac, rheumatologic or neoplastic process)
ICD coding
Epidemiology
Sites
  • Lung
Pathophysiology
  • Currently not well understood; however, it is suspected that one or more compounds in the vaping fluid produce an acute lung injury
Etiology
  • Vaping is the action of using an e-cigarette, a battery powered vaporizer that uses an atomizer (small heating element and a wicking material) to aerosolize a liquid
    • When the user inhales, a flow sensor activates the heating element that atomizes the liquid
  • E-cigarettes use e-liquid or vape juice that generally contains predominantly propylene glycol and glycerin, with a small amount of nicotine, flavorings, additives and differing amounts of contaminants (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:787)
    • Some also contain cannabidiol or cannabis oil but the precise composition is rarely known
  • Dabbing is a related process that involves inhaling or smoking concentrated extracts of cannabis
Clinical features
  • Patients are typically healthy prior to presentation with a history of vaping use
  • Presentation is typically in an acute / subacute time frame with respiratory complaints that can mimic an infectious or inflammatory process
  • Majority but not all cases have reported the use of tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabinoid containing products (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:860)
Diagnosis
  • As defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, confirmed cases will have a history of vaping with exclusion of other infectious and inflammatory conditions (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:787)
  • Biopsy is not required for diagnosis but can be supportive
Laboratory
  • Negative infectious testing including respiratory viral panel, influenza polymerase chain reaction, urine antigen for Streptococcus, sputum culture or bronchioloalveolar lavage culture
  • Oil Red O staining has been performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluids in a number of cases with variable results; however, positive staining or a lipid laden macrophages index has not been shown to be a sensitive or specific marker for vaping associated lung injury (Am J Clin Pathol 2019 Oct 17 [Epub ahead of print])
Radiology description
Radiology images

Contributed by Matthew J. Cecchini, M.D., Ph.D.,
Brandon T. Larsen, M.D., Ph.D.

Ground glass & consolidation

Ground glass

Prognostic factors
  • Unknown
Case reports
Treatment
Microscopic (histologic) description
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Matthew J. Cecchini, M.D., Ph.D., Brandon T. Larsen, M.D., Ph.D.

Diffuse alveolar damage

Acute lung injury with organizing pneumonia

Acute fibrinous pneumonitis

Bronchiolitis

Foamy change

Cytology description
Cytology images
  • Not available
Positive stains
  • Not applicable
Negative stains
  • Negative stains for fungal and acid fast organisms
Sample pathology report
  • Lung, right, transbronchial biopsy:
    • Diffuse alveolar damage (see comment)
    • Comment: The provided clinical history of vaping is noted. Diffuse alveolar damage has been observed as one of the patterns of acute lung injury observed in patients with vaping associated lung injury. However, diffuse alveolar damage is a nonspecific pattern of acute lung injury that can be secondary to many etiologies including infection, septicemia / shock and adverse drug reaction. These other potential causes of acute lung injury must be excluded clinically.
Differential diagnosis
  • Diffuse alveolar damage:
    • Infection (Pneumocystis, Legionella, Mycoplasma, viral), other toxic inhalants, drug toxicity, shock, sepsis, aspiration, radiation, systemic connective tissue diseases, idiopathic
  • Organizing pneumonia:
    • Infection (viral, bacterial, postobstructive), other toxic inhalants, drug toxicity, radiation, collagen vascular disease, aspiration, idiopathic
Board review style question #1
Hyaline membranes are seen in which of the following forms of acute lung injury?

  1. Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia
  2. Cicatricial organizing pneumonia
  3. Diffuse alveolar damage
  4. Organizing pneumonia
Board review answer #1
C. Diffuse alveolar damage

Comment Here

Reference: Vaping associated acute lung injury
Board review style question #2
The acute lung injury present in these biopsies from a patient with vaping associated acute lung injury is best characterized as which of the following patterns?



  1. Diffuse alveolar damage
  2. Ischemia
  3. Organizing pneumonia
  4. Vasculitis
Board review answer #2
C. Organizing pneumonia

Comment Here

Reference: Vaping associated acute lung injury
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