Microbiology
Viruses
DNA Viruses

Author: Christopher Hale, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 28 April 2016, last major update October 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2016, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: DNA viruses [title]

Cite this page: DNA Viruses. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/microbiologyvirusesDNA.html. Accessed December 3rd, 2016.
Definition / General
  • Common human pathogens
  • Includes Herpes viruses, Hepadnaviruses, Adenoviruses, Papillomaviruses, Polyomaviruses, Parvoviruses, Pox viruses (HHAPPPP mnemonic)

  • May be categorized by:
    • Organization of genome (linear / circular, single - stranded / double - stranded)
    • Replication strategy
    • Structure (enveloped / naked)
Terminology
Etiology
  • Herpesviridae
    • HSV - 1 / HSV - 2 (NIH-Herpes):
      • Ocular
      • Oral / mucosa
      • Genital
      • Cutaneous infections
      • Encephalitis
      • Meningitis
    • Varicella - zoster:
      • Chicken pox
      • Shingles
    • Epstein - Barr:
      • Infectious mononucleosis
      • Burkitt lymphoma
      • Hodgkin lymphoma
      • Others
    • Cytomegalovirus:
      • Congenital chorioretinitis / CNS abnormalities
      • Severe infection in immunosuppressed adults
    • Human Herpes Virus - 8:
      • Kaposi sarcoma
      • Multifocal Castleman's disease
      • Primary effusion lymphoma

  • Hepadnaviridae:
    • Hepatitis B virus

  • Denoviridae:
    • Upper / lower respiratory tract infections

  • Papillomaviridae (NIH - HPV):
    • Warts
    • Cervical cancer
    • Penile cancer
    • Condyloma
    • Head and neck cancers

  • Polyomaviridae:
    • Hemorrhagic cystitis in transplant recipients
    • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    • Others

  • Parvoviridae:
    • Parvovirus B19
    • Fifth disease / slapped - cheek disease
    • Aplastic anemia

  • Poxviridae:
    • Molluscum contagiosum
    • Small pox
    • Cow pox
    • Monkey Pox
    • Orf

  • Many DNA viruses have cancer associations (Arch Virol 2013;158:1433)
Laboratory
  • Culture conditions:
    • Most viruses must be collected in viral transport medium (VTM) for culture
    • Ability to culture, and optimal conditions vary by virus
    • Culture techniques include growth in standard eukaryotic cell lines such as Hep - 2 or human diploid fibroblasts
    • Infected cell cultures may be examined for characteristic viral cytopathic effects (inclusions, multinucleation, etc.)

  • Newer molecular techniques increasingly preferred (PCR, multiplex PCR) over viral culture (Clin Microbiol Rev 2008;21:716)
  • Serology (change in titers, IgM to IgG switch) may assist in determining exposure and/or time course of disease for some DNA viruses
  • Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) kits
  • Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
  • Tzanck smear is Giemsa or Wright stain used for morphologic identification of suspected herpes infection (light microscopic evaluation for multinucleated cells from a clinically suspected herpetic lesion)
Treatment
Molecular / Cytogenetics Description
  • Molecular identification techniques (nucleic acid amplification testing) replacing traditional diagnostics in some settings (Curr Issues Mol Biol 2007;9:87)