Oral cavity
Infectious
Gingivitis

Author: Patricia DeVilliers, DDS, MS (see Authors page)

Revised: 16 April 2018, last major update August 2012

Copyright: (c) 2001-2018, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Oral[TI] gingivitis[TI]

Cite this page: DeVilliers, P. Gingivitis. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/oralcavitygingivitis.html. Accessed April 22nd, 2018.
Definition / general
  • Painless inflammation of gingiva around gingival sulci or cuff surrounding each tooth, due to bacterial plaque
  • Most commonly due to Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Treponema
  • May be due to scurvy, endocrine alterations (teenagers, pregnancy), disseminated tuberculosis, phenytoin or other drugs
Gross description
  • Erythematous and edematous gingiva adjacent to teeth
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Initially neutrophils, later T lymphocytes, finally B lymphocytes and plasma cells
Acute necrotizing gingivitis
Definition / general
  • Also called trench mouth, Vincent stomatitis, ulcerative stomatitis
  • Caused by fusospirochetal complex of microbes
  • Heals with scarring and blunting of interdental papillae
  • May recur
  • Predisposing factors: poor oral hygiene, smoking, emotional anguish, age 12 - 29 years in U.S. and Northern Europe

Gross description
  • Highly inflamed mucosa with enlargement of interdental papillae and presence of gray pseudomembrane with hemorrhagic tissue below
  • Occasional ulceration of papillae

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Necrosis of interdental gingival papillae, focal abscess