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Oral cavity

Infectious

Gingivitis


Reviewer: Patricia DeVilliers, D.D.S., M.S. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 3 October 2012, last major update August 2012
Copyright: (c) 2001-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
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● Painless inflammation of gingiva around gingival sulci or cuff surrounding each tooth, due to bacterial plaque
● Most commonly due to Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Treponema
● May be due to scurvy, endocrine alterations (teenagers, pregnancy), disseminated tuberculosis, phenytoin or other drugs

Gross description
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● Erythematous and edematous gingiva adjacent to teeth

Micro description
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● Initially neutrophils, later T lymphocytes, finally B lymphocytes and plasma cells


Acute necrotizing gingivitis

Definition
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● Also called trench mouth, Vincentís stomatitis, ulcerative stomatitis
● Caused by fusospirochetal complex of microbes
● Heals with scarring and blunting of interdental papillae
● May recur
Predisposing factors: poor oral hygiene, smoking, emotional anguish, age 12-29 years in US and Northern Europe

Gross description
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● Highly inflamed mucosa with enlargement of interdental papillae and presence of gray pseudomembrane with hemorrhagic tissue below
● Occasional ulceration of papillae

Micro description
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● Necrosis of interdental gingival papillae, focal abscess

End of Oral cavity > Infectious > Gingivitis


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