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Parathyroid gland


Reviewer: Monika Roychowdhury, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 17 February 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● Condition of parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency.(eMedicine-hypoparathyroidism)
● DiGeorge syndrome: complete or partial absence of third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, causing thymic aplasia and T cell deficiency, conotruncal cardiac defects; -22 by FISH
● Familial: syndrome of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, then hypoparathyroidism, then primary adrenal insufficiency
● Idiopathic atrophy: antibodies directed against calcium-sensing receptor in parathyroid gland
● Radiation
● Surgery (including thyroidectomy)


● Cataracts
● Circumoral numbness or paresthesias of distal extremities
● Dental abnormalities during early development: dental hypoplasia, failure of eruption, defective enamel and root formation, abraded carious teeth
● Laryngospasm
● Prolonged QT interval
● Seizures
● Tetany / neuromuscular irritability

Trousseau sign:
● Carpopedal spasm when inflate blood pressure cuff for several minutes

Chvostek sign:
● Tap along course of facial nerve to induce contraction of muscles of eye, mouth, nose

Mental status change:
● Anxiety, depression, confusion, psychosis
● Movement disorders, papilledema

End of Parathyroid gland > Hypoparathyroidism

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