Parathyroid gland
Hypoparathyroidism
General

Author: Monika Roychowdhury, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 11 April 2018, last major update January 2013

Copyright: (c) 2003-2018, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Hypoparathyroidism[TI] pathology full text[sb]

Table of Contents
Causes | Symptoms
Cite this page: Roychowdhury, M. Hypoparathyroidism. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/parathyroidhypopth.html. Accessed July 21st, 2018.
Causes
  • Condition of parathyroid hormone (PTH) deficiency (eMedicine: Hypoparathyroidism [Accessed 11 April 2018])
  • DiGeorge syndrome: complete or partial absence of third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, causing thymic aplasia and T cell deficiency, conotruncal cardiac defects; -22 by FISH
  • Familial: syndrome of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, then hypoparathyroidism, then primary adrenal insufficiency
  • Idiopathic atrophy: antibodies directed against calcium sensing receptor in parathyroid gland
  • Radiation
  • Surgery (including thyroidectomy)
Symptoms
  • Cataracts
  • Circumoral numbness or paresthesias of distal extremities
  • Dental abnormalities during early development: dental hypoplasia, failure of eruption, defective enamel and root formation, abraded carious teeth
  • Laryngospasm
  • Prolonged QT interval
  • Seizures
  • Tetany / neuromuscular irritability

Trousseau sign:
  • Carpopedal spasm when inflate blood pressure cuff for several minutes

Chvostek sign:
  • Tap along course of facial nerve to induce contraction of muscles of eye, mouth, nose

Mental status change:
  • Anxiety, depression, confusion, psychosis
  • Movement disorders, papilledema