Penis and scrotum
Editors: Antonio Cubilla, M.D. and Alcides Chaux, M.D. (see Author/Reviewers page)
Revised: 29 May 2010, last major update May 2010
Copyright: (c) 2002-2010, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Surgical excision of foreskin
● In US, neonatal circumcision is estimated to reduce HIV risk by 16% (AIDS Behav 2008;12:835)
● Circumcision is associated with reduced incidence of penile cancer if performed at birth, by preventing chronic inflammatory preputial conditions (lichen sclerosus, chronic balanoposthitis); less effective in preventing penile cancer when carried out in adulthood
● Noncircumcised men have higher incidence of HPV and HIV, possibly due to CD4+ T lymphocytes on inner mucosa of foreskin, or increased incidence of coital injuries (J Urol 2010 May 16 [Epub ahead of print])
● Higher risk of complications at older ages, with inexperienced providers or with non-sterile conditions (BMC Urol 2010;10:2)
● See Wikipedia for discussion of controversies about circumcision
Procedure - images
End of Penis and scrotum > Circumcision
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