Penis and scrotum
Reviewer: Antonio Cubilla, M.D. and Alcides Chaux, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 26 May 2013, last major update May 2010
Copyright: (c) 2002-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
- Surgical excision of foreskin
- Recommended by WHO to reduce incidence of HIV in heterosexual men (J Infect Dev Ctries 2008;2:328, WHO)
- In US, neonatal circumcision is estimated to reduce HIV risk by 16% (PLoS One 2010;5:e8723)
- Circumcision is associated with reduced incidence of penile cancer if performed at birth, by preventing chronic inflammatory preputial conditions (lichen sclerosus, chronic balanoposthitis); less effective in preventing penile cancer when carried out in adulthood
- Non-circumcised men have higher incidence of HPV and HIV, possibly due to CD4+ T lymphocytes on inner mucosa of foreskin or increased incidence of coital injuries (J Urol 2010;184:203)
- Higher risk of complications at older ages, with inexperienced providers or with non-sterile conditions (BMC Urol 2010;10:2)
- See Wikipedia for discussion of controversies about circumcision
End of Penis and scrotum > Circumcision
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