Placental gross / microscopic abnormalities, nonneoplastic
Amniotic rupture and amniotic band syndrome

Topic Completed: 1 September 2011

Revised: 15 February 2019

Copyright: 2002-2019,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Amniotic rupture amniotic band syndrome

Mandolin S. Ziadie, M.D.
Page views in 2018: 370
Page views in 2019 to date: 224
Cite this page: Ziadie MS. Amniotic rupture and amniotic band syndrome. website. Accessed August 25th, 2019.
Definition / general
  • Sporadic rupture of the amniotic sac; theories of pathogenesis vary
  • Amniotic rupture is associated with amniotic band syndrome (Am J Surg Pathol 1984;8:117), in which strips of amniotic epithelium wrap around fetal surfaces and cause amputations, necrosis and deformations
  • Craniofacial defects and limb abnormalities are the most common results
  • Early rupture is associated with more severe fetal defects
Gross description
  • Fetal surface may appear rough
  • Residual strips of amnion may be seen but are usually overlooked
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Vernix granulomas in separated amniotic mesenchyme and in denuded mesenchyme of chorionic plates confirm antepartum amniotic rupture
  • Biopsies of maternal placental bed may show desquamated stratified squamous epithelial cells in edema fluid between muscle fibers surrounded by marked neutrophilic infiltrate, uterine venules with fibrin clots containing squamous epithelial cells; veins with plugs of amniotic thrombi (Arch Pathol Lab Med 1997;121:167)
  • In prolonged amniotic leakage, may see subchorionic squames or subchorionic foreign body reaction (Arch Pathol Lab Med 1986;110:47)
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