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Placenta

Placental gross/microscopic abnormalities, non-neoplastic

Hypoxic changes


Reviewers: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 November 2011, last major update October 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
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● Any lesion resulting in placental hypoxia can induce downstream effects in the placental villi due to underperfusion of the intervillous space
● These changes may be seen in pregnancies affected by maternal hypertension or superficial implantation with insufficient vascular remodeling

Micro description
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● Maternal underperfusion (affecting the intervillous space) is associated with infarction and decidual arteriopathy
● Other changes include: increased syncytial knotting (Tenney-Parker change), distal villous hypoplasia / accelerated maturation (villi are smaller than normal with finger-like outlines) and villous chorangiosis
● Fetal hypoxia / anemia / underperfusion (affecting the chorionic villous circulation) results in hemorrhagic endovasculitis / fetal thrombotic vasculopathy
● Increased numbers of nucleated red cells may be present

End of Placenta > Placental gross/microscopic abnormalities, non-neoplastic > Hypoxic changes


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