Gestational trophoblastic disease
Invasive mole

Author: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 20 October 2017, last major update December 2011

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Invasive mole[title]

Cite this page: Ziadie, M. Invasive mole. website. Accessed December 17th, 2017.
Definition / general
  • Also known as chorioadenoma destruens
  • Patients present with uterine bleeding and elevated hCG after evacuation of a mole
  • Occurs in 16% of all complete moles, due to an increased capacity of the trophoblast for invasion
  • Tumor may invade parametrial tissue, broad ligament and blood vessels but serosa is usually intact
  • Rarely perforates uterus, causing life threatening hemorrhage
  • Villi may embolize to distant sites (lung, vagina, brain and spinal cord) with hemorrhagic complications
  • Do NOT grow (i.e. not true metastases) and eventually regress
  • Chemotherapy (often cannot differentiate tumor from choriocarcinoma)
Gross description
  • Hemorrhagic lesion with irregular borders invading myometrium
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Villi with features of mole (complete) invade the myometrium, its vessels or broad ligament
  • Villi may be obscured by trophoblastic proliferation and require careful scrutiny to identify
Differential diagnosis