Reviewers: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 November 2011, last major update November 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● True knots are actual looped knots of the cord, which may be associated with intravascular thrombi, grooves and umbilical narrowing
● Tight or longterm knots are associated with intrauterine death
● False knots are prominent twists / varicosities of the cord, which may be due to localized increases in Wharton’s jelly; they have no clinical significance
Contributed by anonymous: true knot with placental infarction and intrauterine fetal demise
End of Placenta > Umbilical cord > Knots
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