Reviewers: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 November 2011, last major update November 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Umbilical cord length exceeding 100 cm, as measured by obstetrician
● Associated with knots, entanglements, obstruction, thrombi and prolapse with fetal distress / demise
● “Telephone cord”: excessively long cord with hypercoiling; clinically significant only in the presence of torsion
End of Placenta > Umbilical cord > Long cord
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