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Placenta

Placental gross/microscopic abnormalities, non-neoplastic

Large for gestational age / overweight placentas


Reviewers: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 15 November 2011, last major update October 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
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● Placenta weight > 90th percentile for estimated gestational age

Etiology
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● Usually due to edema as a result of fetal or maternal factors
Fetal factors: acute antenatal hypoxia including low Apgar scores, respiratory distress syndrome, neurologic abnormalities (may persist), hydrops/neonatal death (erythroblastosis fetalis, tumors or fetal renal vein thrombosis), chronic intrauterine infection, immunohemolytic anemia, fetomaternal hemorrhage and polyhydramnios (Hum Pathol 1987;18:387)
Maternal factors: diabetes, anemia, malnutrition, retroplacental hematoma and TORCH infections

Gross description
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● Bulky, overweight placenta

Micro description
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● May include extensive villous edema, chorangiosis and villous dysmaturity (distal villous hypoplasia)

End of Placenta > Placental gross/microscopic abnormalities, non-neoplastic > Large for gestational age / overweight placentas


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