Home   Chapter Home   Jobs   Conferences   Fellowships   Books



Advertisement

Placenta

Placental gross/microscopic abnormalities, non-neoplastic

Infarct


Reviewers: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 16 November 2011, last major update October 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
=========================================================================

● Villous necrosis secondary to local obstruction of maternal uteroplacental circulation
● Due to extensive placental reserve, small infarcts and those at the margin are usually clinically insignificant
● Need >30% placental involvement to affect fetal income (neonatal asphyxia, low birth weight and intrauterine fetal death)
● Central infarcts, large (>3 cm) infarcts and multiple infarcts indicate significant reductions in uteroplacental blood flow
● Minor areas of infarction are seen in 25% of placentas

Etiology
=========================================================================

● Associated with maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, Rh incompatibility, connective tissue disorders, retroplacental hematomas (abruptio placenta, associated with cocaine) or maternal thrombophilia

Gross description
=========================================================================

● Pale, indurated focus with granular cut surface in placenta parenchyma
● Recent infarcts are red and may not be appreciated
● Grossly, the differential diagnosis includes hematomas (usually lobular), subchorionic fibrous plaques, perivillous fibrin deposition (usually venous lesions), intervillous laminated thrombi and intraplacental choriocarcinoma (looks grossly like an infarct)

Gross images
=========================================================================



Placental infarct

Micro description
=========================================================================

● Collapsed villi with “ghost”-like appearance due to loss of nuclear basophilia / karyorrhexis
● Intervillous space is obliterated due to increased fibrin deposition and villous agglutination
● Marked congestion of villous vessels, lobular distribution
● No villous stromal fibrosis, no cytotrophoblastic proliferation

Micro images
=========================================================================



Pale necrotic chorionic villi

End of Placenta > Placental gross/microscopic abnormalities, non-neoplastic > Infarct


This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patient's clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician.

All information on this website is protected by copyright of PathologyOutlines.com, Inc. Information from third parties may also be protected by copyright. Please contact us at copyrightPathOut@gmail.com with any questions (click here for other contact information).