Reviewer: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 23 November 2011, last major update November 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Four or more umbilical cord vessels due to an extra artery or vein
● May be associated with fetal anomalies and maternal smoking
● Thought to originate from persistent umbilical veins or vitelline vessels
● Looping may cause artifactual supernumerary vessels and should be excluded on gross examination
End of Placenta > Umbilical cord > Supernumerary vessels
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