Reviewer: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 23 November 2011, last major update November 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Umbilical cord diameter < 1 cm, usually due to diminished Wharton’s jelly
● Total absence of Wharton’s jelly is associated with fetal demise
● Increased risk of fetal demise when associated with a hypercoiled cord (> 1 coil per 5 cm) and structures of the vessels (“thin cord syndrome”)
End of Placenta > Umbilical cord > Thin cord
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