Umbilical cord
Torsion / hypercoiling

Author: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 19 October 2017, last major update November 2011

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Umbilical cord[title] (torsion OR hypercoiling)

Cite this page: Ziadie, M. Torsion / hypercoiling. website. Accessed October 22nd, 2018.
Definition / general
  • Normal umbilical cord has approximately 1 coil per 5 cm
  • Number of coils is related to fetal movement
  • Torsion / hypercoiling (> 2 coils per 5 cm) is associated with extremely long cords, twin gestation and cocaine; has increased risk of fetal growth restriction or death
  • Associated with fibrosis and loss of Wharton jelly (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:1352)
Gross images

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Torsion of umbilical cord