Prostate
Benign lesions / conditions
Calculi

Authors: Andres Matoso, M.D. (see Authors page)
Editorial Board Member Review: Maria Tretiakova, M.D.

Revised: 12 April 2017, last major update March 2017

Copyright: (c) 2003-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed search: prostatic calculi
Cite this page: Calculi. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/prostatecalculi.html. Accessed April 24th, 2017.
Definition / General
  • Rare in children, infrequent < age 40, common > age 50
  • May be solitary but usually occur in clusters and are associated with nodular hyperplasia, prostatic carcinoma, metabolic abnormalities or other abnormalities (Prostate 1985;7:91)
  • Identified in 7% of prostates with nodular hyperplasia
  • Stones usually contain phosphate salts of calcium, magnesium, potassium, calcium carbonate or calcium oxalate; stones in enlarged prostatic utricles contain hydroxyapatite (J Androl 2012;33:45)
  • Corpora amylacea may act as nidus for stone formation
  • Radiopaque, are detected by Xray
  • Rarely are infected and cause abscesses
Essential Features
  • Uncommon in children and under age 40
  • Usually associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Primary or endogenous when originate in the prostate; secondary or exogenous when originate outside the prostate (kidney, bladder)
  • Chemical composition of hydroxylapatite / carboapatite and whitlockite suggest prostatic origin; uric acid or oxalic compounds are more common in exogenous calculi
Terminology
  • Lithiasis, calculi
ICD-10 coding
  • N42.0
Epidemiology
  • Uncommon in children and under age 40
Sites
  • Prostatic ducts, urethra
Pathophysiology
  • Primary lithiasis appears to originate from phosphocalcifications of corpora amylacea
  • Can form in a prostatic lodge of TURP with distal obstruction
Etiology
  • Associated with diseases that cause lower urinary tract obstruction
Clinical Features
  • Incidental finding on TURP or prostatectomy specimen
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms in larger calculi obstructing or irritating the urethra
Diagnosis
  • Radiology
  • Urethrocystoscopy
Radiology Description
  • Seen on Xray
Prognostic Factors
  • No prognostic significance
Treatment
  • TURP, prostatectomy, endoscopic removal, endoscopic lithotripsy
Gross Images

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Prostate stones

Differential Diagnosis
  • Foreign body