Skin nonmelanocytic tumor
Dermoid cyst

Topic Completed: 1 January 2015

Minor changes: 14 July 2020

Copyright: 2002-2016,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Dermoid cyst [title] skin

Ghassan A. Tranesh, M.D.
Hong Qu, M.D.
Page views in 2019: 21,988
Page views in 2020 to date: 10,748
Cite this page: Tranesh G. Dermoid cyst. website. Accessed August 10th, 2020.
Definition / general
  • Usually face of children along embryonic closure lines
  • Also neck midline, nasal root, nose, forehead, mastoid area, anterior chest, scalp
  • Dermoid cysts result from sequestration of cutaneous tissues along embryonal lines of closure
  • Also encountered in deeper noncutaneous sites
  • Some authors propose an embryological origin for these cysts, particularly in the nasal form
Clinical features
  • Usually enlarges slowly, but sudden increase in size may occur, bringing the lesion to attention at a later age
  • Treated with excision if clinically indicated
  • Squamous cell carcinoma rarely develops in wall of cyst
  • Infection of a cranial dermoid cyst may be complicated by central nervous system involvement
Case reports
Clinical images

Images hosted on other servers:

Lower lid

Lateral eyebrow

CT without contrast shows lateral
dermoid cyst with characteristic hyperdense
cyst wall and hypodense cyst cavity

Gross description
  • Unilocular cysts are usually subcutaneous and filled with sebaceous material and hair
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Lined by stratified squamous epithelium with associated hair follicles and sebaceous glands
  • Eccrine sweat glands present in 35%, apocrine glands in 15%
  • Occasionally smooth muscle, but in contrast to benign cystic teratoma, cartilage and bone are not described
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Typical dermoid cyst

Keratin filled lumen

Kertinized stratified squamous lining

Positive stains
  • Suprabasal layer: CK1 and CK10
  • Basal layer: CK14
  • Sebaceous gland-like areas: CK14+ in sebaceous acinus
  • Sebaceous duct: CK17
Differential diagnosis
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